Cultural Resources Management
Tentative Course Outline
Anthropology A401

Dr. Larry J. Zimmerman

Anthropology 401

5:45-8:25 PM   TH, Cavanaugh 411

Office: 434 Cavanaugh

Telephone: 317-274-2383; Fax:  317-279-5220; E-mail: Please use OnCourse e-mail for the class-related business. If you need to contact me at a later time, you may use

Office Hours: MW 10-Noon, 1 PM-2:15 PM and TH 1-3 PM. I'm usually available immediately before and after class; Other hours by appointment. I am available many other times throughout the week, so if you are in CA, feel free to stop in. However, if you are making a special trip, it’s wise to call ahead.

Course Description

Why do people believe that their past is important? Doing so almost seems to be a cultural universal, yet the amount of attachment a people places in its past is quite variable, and within a single culture, some may think it is utterly insignificant while others apparently “worship” their pasts. In America, we exhibit the full range of ideas about the past, but many generally understand its importance to identity and have adopted the idea that we should conserve the past and be good stewards of it. We have institutionalized stewardship of the past under the general rubric of historic preservation, but specifically work within a framework of heritage management (the term used by much of the world) and cultural resources management (the US term normally just referred to as CRM). This class will examine why cultures care about their pasts and how they go about protecting it. But we will focus on CRM, the nature of the issues, policies, and laws that support ideas of historic preservation.


Although the objectives of this course are many, several are key. You should:

  1. understand what the past is and what it means to a culture.
  2. understand the complex nature of the past and the uses to which it is put.
  3. understand the notion of accountability to the public and dealing with stakeholders.
  4. learn the basic concepts and issues of heritage management.
  5. learn the basic laws and policies behind historic preservation.
  6. learn the fundamental processes of CRM, especially Section 106 actions.
  7. learn the major issues about and core elements of professional ethics in heritage management and CRM.
  8. understand basic elements of the business of CRM.


Some themes are common to all of the above topics. You should be aware of these themes during your readings, videos, and projects. Try to identify them where possible. These are:

    • Preservation: What are we really saving?
    • Stewardship: Who is responsible for the past?
    • Cultural property: Can the past be “owned” or “controlled?”
    • Meaning: What does the past mean to people, and how do they use it?
    • Ethics: What are the ethical issues in heritage management?

Course Web Site

The web site that supports this course is located at It will expand in material and resources as the class progresses. Please look at the site soon.  You can link to it from the class pages on the OnCourse system. On the site you’ll find the class announcements with shifts in the schedule, a course syllabus with hot links, details on assignments & projects, lecture notes, video guides, links pages of annotated web sites in support of particular class topics, and assorted other materials. The web site is meant to assist your learning in the class. Use it as much or as little as you choose.

Class Format

Because the class is small and upper division, class will generally be a seminar format, which includes presentations from class members and discussion. There will be some lecture, and classes sometimes will include videos. I have structured as much of this class as I can around how real world CRM works. You’ll see these along the way.


You class grade will come from four (4) major activities, worth a total of 300 points. Each activity is described below, along with the points it is worth.

Milestone Quizzes (50 points)

You will have two quizzes that I would call easy assuming you’ve done the readings. Each will be worth 25 points. These quizzes are designed to test whether you have mastered core material in the class as given at that point in the semester. Examples of core materials are major CRM laws, major elements of ethical codes, and key processes of CRM practice. The quiz dates given in the schedule are approximate. Each will consist of a mix of question types: identification/significance, short essay, true/false, and multiple-choice.

Informal Presentations (50 points)

In class, you will be involved in giving two (2) 10-20 minute presentations, each worth 25 points. One presentation will be done individually, and the other as part of a small group (CRM, after all, is a cooperative enterprise!). Presentations will be built around groups of readings, but you will be expected to find ancillary (additional, connected) materials from the Web or other online sources to blend into your presentation. Presentations should use PowerPoint or the web. We’ll spend some class time going over how to do such a presentation. See the web site for more details on topics. Scores for individual presentations will be based on preparation (10 points), cohesive arguments (10 points), and minimally, on the presentation itself (5 points). Group presentations will be graded on preparation (5points), cohesive arguments (10 points), peer evaluation (5 points) and group member evaluation (5 points). Why peer evaluations? CRM is usually a peer reviewed profession. Why group evaluations too? In this way you will be accountable to classmates for work you do or don’t do.

Informal Readings Presentations (100 points)

You will be asked to make five (5) brief presentations of readings, videos, or other assignments during the semester, each worth 20 points. These will consist of a short summary of the reading(s) to the class in both written and oral form. Submit the written version to Dr. Zimmerman by e-mail before the class or bring necessary copies for each student and also submit an e-mail version after class. At the end of your presentation, you will provide 3-4 discussion questions from the materials. These summaries and discussion questions will be posted on the class web site with your e-mail address, so you will want to put forth your best effort (I reserve the right to do some editing first!). The instructor will assign 5 points, you will assign 5 points yourself, and your classmates will assign 10 points (each will be asked to rate your presentation from 0-10, with the scores averaged to calculate the final score). Why this approach? In a CRM operation, you are accountable to members of your firm or agency, professional peers, and the public.

Class Project (100 points)

As a class, we will continually be referring to the Interstate 69 expansion project in Indiana as an actual, on-going, and controversial CRM project. We’ll look at online materials, talk with key individuals, and perhaps get to take a field trip or take part in some fieldwork (if it can be arranged—no promises!). As a class, we will design an online “exhibit” about the project. You will work with others as part of a team, but will be assigned a segment of the project on which you will be the “lead” and on which your grade will be based. Grades will be assigned as follows: 30 points from the instructor, 20 points from peer evaluations, 10 points self-evaluation, and 40 points from an international panel of knowledgeable outside evaluators who are themselves involved in professional CRM work. The panel assessment will be for the whole project, with that number assigned to each of you. Hence it behoves you to see that not only your individual section is the best it can be, but also the whole project. The rationale:  this is almost exactly the way the CRM world works. Projects are usually teamwork; you usually are responsible for a segment of it, but your livelihood depends on success of the whole product; the process is often very public and peer reviewed.

Regarding the latter, this is a project in which you will want to take some pride because it will be very public. The project can also be part of a “portfolio” that might help land you a CRM job if that is a goal. You’ll hear more about this as the class unfolds. By the way, I will have a stake in this too and won’t want to be embarrassed by our product!

I intend to arrange for a panel of well known and “high powered” colleagues (and friends, so don’t be too worried!) to serve as reviewers including:

·        Tom King was responsible for much of the way the US system of CRM operates and is author of several of your texts (see his CRM blog at;

·        Laurajane Smith ( is a professor of archaeology at York in the UK, ran her own heritage management consultancy in Australia, and is author of  Archaeological Theory and the Politics of Cultural Heritage);  

·        Joe Watkins is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico and author of Indigenous Archaeology):

·        Claire Smith  is Professor of Anthropology at Flinders University in Australia and  President of the World Archaeological Congress (see for details about Claire’s activities);

·        David Hurst Thomas is Curator of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History and author of many archaeology texts and books including the recent book Skull Wars.  (See for details).

Final grades will be calculated using your total accumulated points according to the following scale:

275 or above = A+
250-274 = A
225-249 = A-
200-224 = B+
175-199 = B
150-174 = B-
125-149 = C+

100-124 = C
75-99 = C-
50-74 = D+
25-49 = D
24-20 = D-
19 or less = F

Extra Consideration Points

I will announce several activities for you to use to boost your points. These may involve such things as analyzing CRM reports and reporting them to class, watching an reporting a video related to CRM, attending a lecture or event having to do with CRM, or a variety of other activities that will be announced. The maximum number of points to be earned by any student will be 30.  I will try to announce opportunities in class, but will also put them on the OnCourse class announcements and the class web site. Here’s the way it works. For each opportunity, you will be offered the opportunity to “bid” on the chance for points. Only two people in the class will be selected based on the low “bid” that meets my specifications for doing the extra consideration task. This is a simulation of real world CRM operation. You get rewarded for your “hustle.”

Textbook and Other Readings

This class has four required texts and a large number of recommended books (see the web site for these).  The required texts are available at the Cavanaugh Hall Jaguar Bookstore. You will read most, but not all, of each of these books. The recommended books would be a relatively low-cost core library for a CRM professional, but are not necessary for you to purchase. There will also be additional assigned readings, the first two weeks of them listed on the schedule.

Tentative Lecture, Reading and Exam Schedule

Following is a loosely arranged lecture and reading assignment schedule. You will be assigned additional readings not shown here. I have only listed those for the first two class periods.  I reserve the right to change the schedule based on class needs, illness, or other factors. Abbreviations in the reading section below are as follows: CRA=Cultural Resources Archaeology: An Introduction; CRLP=Cultural Resource Laws and Practice; PTC=Places That Count; TCRM=Thinking About Cultural Resources Management: Essay from the Edge. Numbers are chapters, not pages. Read ahead if you like. In bold Italics are key activities, quizzes, and due dates. Lectures will expand on and illustrate the following topics:

Approx Date

Topic or activity



Jan 13

Introduction to class. What is heritage? What is heritage management?

Several short web pieces:


 What is Heritage,; Lowenthal, Fabricating Heritage, ; Heritage and its History: Menaces of the Much-Loved Past,

Jan 20

What is CRM? The public and archaeology; A class focal point: I-69 expansion

CRM: What is it?

Fundamental Concepts of CRM,

Presenting History to the Public, ; Sharing the Past with the Present,

I-69 Evansville to Indianapolis Tier 2 Study

Jan 27

Who are heritage management stakeholders? Lab 1

 CRLP foreword & 1; CRA Preface, 1 & 2

Feb 3

Federal Law & Regulations: a history

 TCRM Introduction & 1-4; Neuman

Feb 10

Quiz 1 on laws and regulations

Section 106


 CRLP 5-6; TCRM 5, 9-12

Feb 17

 Doing CRM: Background, Phase I

 CRLP 7-9;

Feb 24

Doing CRM: Phases II-III

 CRA 5-6

Mar 3


 CRA 7

Mar 10

Quiz 2 on CRM Processes

CRM as a business/Ethics in CRM

TCRM 21-23, CRA Appendix B

Mar 17

Spring Break


Mar 24

Dealing with Stakeholders/Consultations

 TCRM14-20, PTC 11

Mar 31

Traditional Cultural Properties: Definitions

 PTC 1-6

Apr 7

Traditional Cultural Properties: Bulletin 38

 PTC 7-10, 12-13

Apr 14

CRM/Heritage Management Abroad

I-69 Case Study


Apr 21

I-69 Case Study web project due


Apr 28

Can we really preserve the past? CRM Issues

 TCRM 24-25


You will see some excellent videos or films which directly support the reading material and lectures. The material in the films is considered “quizzable.” You will find a study guide for each video we see, linked from the class web site. Generally films will be announced one class period ahead, so if you can, please look at the video study guide before seeing the video. If you can’t, please look at it as soon as possible afterwards. You may wish to take note during films as you would during lectures; they are not shown for entertainment.

Academic Misconduct

All work in the course is conducted in accordance with the University’s academic misconduct policy. Cheating includes dishonesty of any kind with respect to exams or assignments. Plagiarism is the offering of someone else’s work as your own: this includes taking material from books, web pages, or other students, turning in the same or substantially similar work as other students, or failing to properly cite other research. Please consult the University Bulletin’s academic misconduct policy if you have any questions about what constitutes academic dishonesty. If academic misconduct is discovered, you will lose all credit for that Activity.

Attendance Policy

As Woody Allen says, “Eighty percent of success is just showing up!” This class is the same: to do well, you have to be there.  Because we only have about 15 class meetings, there is a great deal to accomplish. Thus, three (3) unexcused absences will result in a grade reduction of one letter grade, no matter the grade you earn in labs, projects, or exams (think about it: three absences is 20% of the class periods!). Each additional absences will result in an additional grade reduction.  Excused absences are the usual: illness, emergencies, participation in sanctioned university events, extreme weather that would endanger you. If at all possible, please send me an e-mail or phone if you know you won’t be attending. The worst possible attendance “crime” in this class is not showing up when you have a presentation due and not telling me ahead of time. Doing this will result in a full letter grade reduction!  It is better to show up with the assignment not ready than not to show up!

Other Matters

  • Note Well: For any written assignment you may turn in drafts to me so long as they are ahead of the due date. At your request, I will quickly read the draft and make suggestions regarding content, organization, or writing. You can then take my suggestions and rewrite if you wish. You can turn drafts in any number of times so long as it is before the due date. Plan ahead, however, in that if I am deluged by many papers at one time, I won’t have time to get through them before the due date.
  • Contact me as soon as possible if you cannot complete an assignment on time. E-mail is a good way to do this. I check my email several times, almost everyday. Please use OnCourse e-mail to contact me.
  • Please do NOT wait until after a deadline to talk to me. Do NOT postpone talking to me if you are having any difficulty completing an assignment or if you are having difficulty with the class.
  • Late assignments will be penalized a letter grade for every class they are late if you do not negotiate an extension with me beforehand or discuss the delay immediately afterward.
  • Where appropriate, you may email assignments to me as attachments, or you can leave assignments in my mailbox in 413 Cavanaugh Hall. In fact, I prefer e-mailed assignments. However, do not erase your assignment until you have a response from me that I have received and can read it.
  • This syllabus includes deadlines for all assignments and test dates: it is your responsibility to know when exercises are due and tests are scheduled.
  • If you have learning problems that might require special accommodation for completion of class assignments, please notify me of these matters within the first two or three class periods. I’ll make every effort to make things work for you.
  • Classroom courtesies: These should go without saying, but please try to observe usual classroom courtesies: 1. Pay attention while others are speaking or giving presentations. You certainly want them to pay attention to you! 2. If you arrive late, try to be as inconspicuous as possible as you enter. 3. Turn off cells phones before you come to class; they may interfere with the instructor’s navigation system if you don’t. If you are awaiting an emergency call (birth, death, etc., or an event of that level), sit near the exit, set your phone to vibrate, then go outside the classroom to answer it.

General Comments

Within reason, I will do everything I can to facilitate your learning, but I can only do so much. Ultimately, learning the course material is your responsibility. Please feel free to contact me if you have concerns or issues, but try to remember that I can only bend so far without depriving others students of equal opportunities.  My response to missed classes, exams, or assignments is covered under Other Matters above, but I understand that family emergencies can be out of the ordinary. However, if you do ask for special treatment, it will normally come at some additional cost to you in terms of expected amounts of work.

As well, this class will study issues that are socially controversial, such as the debates over evolution vs. creation. Expect that! Sometimes I even play "devil's advocate" to generate responses. If something angers you or disturbs you, raise the issue immediately, and hopefully, in class for discussion. The worst thing to do is to internalize your anger to the level that it prevents you from learning. If you need help with this issue, please see me about it.


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