Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology Salvaging Endangered Data

Original article by Marah Harbison at News at IU.

A reconstruction of a vessel from the Angel Mounds excavation site.

Archaeologists spend days, months, even years at digs sifting through mud and dirt searching for artifacts that will lead to an understanding of another time and place. Now, the staff at Indiana University Bloomington’s archaeology lab is embarking on a dig of its own – a data dig.

The Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, named for the first archaeologist to teach at IU, functions as a museum, library, and research laboratory dedicated to understanding Indiana’s archaeological heritage. Its largest collection derives from Angel Mounds State Historic Site and National Historic Landmark near Evansville, Indiana, where Black led an excavation from 1939 to 1964 and archaeologists from IU have been working ever since.

From this dig and others, the lab has acquired more than 12,000 archaeological collections composed of nearly 5 million artifacts, 30,000 historical photos, 3,600 books and scholarly publications, and more. It is also the keeper of more than 800 linear feet of documents, field journals, maps, and drawings as well as more than 700 legacy data formats like floppy discs, 9-tracks, and CD-ROMs documenting excavations.

While 70 percent of the artifacts are card catalogued and more than 1,300 of the historical photos are available in an online archive, much of the research data has yet to be retrieved from deteriorating paper journals and obsolete formats to be digitized for accessibility.

“The nightmare is that there is something really important on a floppy disk that doesn’t exist on any other format,” said Jennifer St. Germain, collections manager at the lab. “If we aren’t able to digitize this data then we may lose it.”

So the lab’s staff has launched an effort to salvage its data, much like archaeologists salvage artifacts from excavations. They have taken inventory and assessed the current state of collections and are seeking support from IU Libraries to digitize documents, create online catalogs and finding guides, and retrieve data from legacy formats. Their efforts align with IU’s larger commitment to digitization led by the Media Digitization and Preservation Initiative, which is working to digitize all significant audio and video recordings on campus before the IU Bicentennial in 2020.

“The Glenn Black Lab is emblematic of the rich and varied collections we are dedicated to preserving and sharing at IU. Not only do their collections have regional ties to the state of Indiana and immense research value, but they are closely tied to the history of Indiana University,” said Jamie Wittenberg, head of Scholarly Communications at University Libraries. “There is a lot of potential for use of the collection by current students and faculty.”

“One of the biggest threats facing data and one of the biggest causes of endangered data is not using the collections,” said Melody Pope, curator of collections at the lab. “The more intellectual control we have of archaeological data, the more accessible it is, the more we can promote collections as a research core for students and scholars. Hopefully by the end of this project, a dissertation doctoral student won’t have to spend years sorting through data. The data will be accessible and they’ll just have to bring their questions.”

Beyond reaching students and scholars, the lab hopes the data digitized from this project will be more accessible for the Native American tribes associated with its collections. The lab’s Great Lakes and Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Collection – the fruits of a Department of Justice-funded research project led by IU professor Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin in the 1950s – hosts information pertaining to 15 tribes and spanning the years 1540 to 1907.

While this particular collection now has an online finding aid, the lab hopes to digitize the majority of the research and make it available online. Many tribes included in the project have already been in contact with the lab and are eager to have more access to information that will tell them more about their histories.

“In general our goal is to spread awareness of the resources we have, but it will be particularly rewarding to assist tribes that are interested in the materials we have but can’t travel here to use them,” St. Germain said. “Digitizing these items will give us the power to help some people learn more about their ancestors.”

Measuring Light Pollution in the Hoosier National Forest

Original article by Bethany Nolan from News at IU.

Students in Himebaugh’s digital systems class build light monitors that will be installed throughout the Hoosier National Forest. [Photos by Tracy Theriault]
When the Hoosier National Forest wanted to know whether any part of its more than 200,000 acres could be eligible for an international designation intended to recognize those who minimize light pollution, it turned to Indiana University students for help.

The project is part of the university’s Sustaining Hoosier Communities initiative, which partners with a local community to explore, understand, and resolve challenges identified by the community. The initiative is one of the six areas of focus for the IU Center for Rural Engagement, which works within 11 neighboring counties in southwest central Indiana to address challenges and opportunities in the area.

Clinical assistant professor Bryce Himebaugh, who teaches in IU Bloomington’s new Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, said the 28 undergraduate students in his spring digital systems class are constructing a set of monitors that can be installed in the Hoosier National Forest to measure light pollution. The project launched in August, when the fall cohort wrote a piece of software to collect data while several independent study students constructed a prototype monitor.

“Now I’m teaching the principles of how that hardware and software was designed to this spring’s class, and they’re learning how to build those systems,” Himebaugh said. “We hope they’ll be deployed in the field by April 2018.” He said the project is perfect for his class, which is a mix of students studying intelligent systems engineering and computer science.

“They work with a tremendous amount of energy and enthusiasm, and when you see them figure out things, it’s almost like you’re seeing it all over again for the first time too,” Himebaugh said. “One of the most rewarding things for me is to see these students understand how this system works, and how they can apply it to other situations.

“I don’t expect students in this class will all have a career in developing outdoor monitoring equipment, but rather that they’ll see its applicability to other areas – some sort of medical wearable device or something that could track items in a shipping management system. All kinds of things are possible once you understand how to collect systems data and communicate it.”

That’s exactly what IU sophomore Jackie Youngs enjoys most about the class, she said. “Following a project from idea to physical completion through the entire design process reinforces understanding of each of the individual components and how everything – the programming language, the physics of the components, the devices themselves – connects,” the intelligent systems engineering major said. “This is one of the most important skills I intend to use after completion of this semester.

“I don’t necessarily plan on pursuing computer engineering as a career but am more interested in going to medical school. Even so, being able to identify how a large system is composed of smaller components and how they are connected is an invaluable skill I plan to take from this course.”

Once the class work is complete and the solar-powered monitors are deployed throughout the Hoosier National Forest, Himebaugh said, the data they’ll collect and transmit will help measure light patterns within the forest. The Hoosier National Forest is seeking International Dark Sky Places designation. The application process requires ongoing monitoring and documentation of specific programs intended to minimize light pollution.

“People might not think about the importance of dark night skies on their lives, but increases in nighttime light levels can have serious consequences for ecosystems, animal life, and even human rhythms,” Hoosier National Forest spokeswoman Andrea Crain said. “We hope through this project we can reach a whole new audience to communicate the importance of dark skies and potential recreation experiences on the Hoosier National Forest.”

She said the assistance from the class has been invaluable. “It’s been exciting to meet with students and see their progress throughout this process, as they’re learning to problem-solve and come up with creative solutions to new issues,” Crain said. “Being part of that learning process makes this project an extra special experience for the Hoosier National Forest employees involved.”

Ryan White Letters at the Children’s Museum

Ryan White (1971-1990) was a hemophiliac who contracted AIDS from a blood transfusion. He was diagnosed at the age of 13. In the early 1980s, not much was known about the disease, and Ryan was not allowed to continue attending school in his hometown because parents thought he would spread the disease to others. After a fierce legal battle that brought national attention to Ryan and his family, he was allowed to return to school. However, discrimination continued, and Ryan and his family decided to move further south to Cicero, Indiana. There, Hamilton Heights schools educated their students about AIDS and its effects, and they welcomed him with open arms.

Meanwhile, Ryan became a spokesperson for AIDS communities, speaking locally and internationally about his experiences. He was friends with many celebrities and was able to speak at the President’s Commission on the AIDS Epidemic. A TV movie, “The Ryan White Story,” was made about his life, and it aired in 1989, gaining him further popularity. Ryan’s major goal in life was to have a normal childhood and normal experiences in high school. He enjoyed school and was able to skateboard, drive, and hold a job at a surf shop.

However, Ryan was still sick, and his illness caused his death on April 8th, 1990. Thousands attended his funeral in Indianapolis, including first Lady Barbara Bush. He was buried in Cicero, in part because of the warm welcome the community had given him. Ryan’s legacy lives on through the National CARE Act, IU’s Dance Marathon for Riley (as well as similar marathons at other universities), an AIDS walk at Hamilton Heights commemorating Ryan with a scholarship, and more.

In 2001, Ryan’s mother donated the contents of his room, in addition to other materials, to the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis. The museum opened their ground-breaking permanent exhibit The Power of Children in 2004. The exhibit portrays Ryan’s life, as well as the lives of Ruby Bridges and Anne Frank.

In 2016, The Children’s Museum received a grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services to digitize letters sent to Ryan White in the 1980s in collaboration with IUPUI Library’s Program of Digital Scholarship. The archive of nearly 6,000 letters offers significant cultural information related to the AIDS epidemic, the perspective of children, and related issues of tolerance, education, and inspiration as well as a window to popular culture in the 1980s.

As part of this project, the Museum has created an online learning platform for youth in grades 3-12 to learn how to transcribe letters and research questions of interest about Ryan’s life and time period. In addition, the letters and transcriptions are available to scholars through the IUPUI Library online digital collections, allowing the letters to be used for research regarding the misunderstood disease and to share the legacy of Ryan White.

Visit The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis website to learn more.

From Humanities: Texting in Ancient Mayan Heiroglyphs

The Madrid Codex, World History Archive

If King Tut were around today, could he send a text in Egyptian hieroglyphics? Yes, with the right font and keyboard. That’s because the writing system of the pharaohs has already been included in the Unicode Standard, meaning that a character like the Eye of Horus has a code point, 13080, that will render the same way on a tablet in Cairo and a smartphone in Beijing. Because Mayan hieroglyphs have yet to be encoded, the ancient Mayan emperor K’inich Janaab’ Pakal would have to stick to emoji—but that’s about to change.

Unicode is the international encoding standard that makes it possible for users to read, write, and search in a wide range of written languages on all manner of devices without technical miscommunication. Made up of a mix of academics, stakeholders, and interested volunteers, the Unicode Consortium has encoded 139 of the writing systems, technically known as scripts, ever to have existed. Given that alphabets like Cyrillic, Arabic, and Devanagari serve more than 60 languages each and that 500 languages use the Latin alphabet, Unicode makes electronic communication possible in almost a thousand languages. But there are more than a hundred writing systems to go.

In June 2017, the Unicode Consortium rolled out its tenth version in 26 years, which included four scripts as well as the Bitcoin sign and 56 new emoji. The scripts introduced this year include Nüshu, a writing system that was developed by women in the Hunan Province of nineteenth-century China as a workaround when they were denied formal education. Also newly available is Zanabazar Square, created by a Mongolian monk in the seventeenth century to write spiritual texts in Mongolian, Tibetan, and Sanskrit. Crucial as these steps toward cultural empowerment may be, it is the textable faces, socks, mermen, and the like that have brought this global standard into the limelight.

[Read More]

The IU Open Access Policy

This letter from Jamie Wittenberg, Research Data Management Librarian and Head of the IU Libraries’ Department of Scholarly Communication, was first published here.

Jamie Wittenburg. Photo by Eric Rudd, IU Communications

In 2015, almost 45 percent of articles across all disciplines were published open access as part of a growing worldwide movement to remove financial barriers to scholarly research.

As the head of the Department of Scholarly Communication for IU Libraries, which supports open publishing, I hold the conviction that anyone should be able to read, save and share research regardless of their ability to pay for it. This is perhaps unsurprising — I’m a librarian, and advancing knowledge by providing access to scholarly work is a core mission of IU Libraries. Publishing research in such a way that it is freely available on the open web for use and reuse around the world is the principle of “open access.”

In February 2017, the Bloomington Faculty Council adopted a policy in support of open access in journal publishing, stating, in part, “the faculty of Indiana University Bloomington is committed to disseminating the fruits of its research and scholarship as widely as possible.” This policy marked a milestone for IU and for the open access community. IU Bloomington’s was the 56th faculty council in the world to unanimously pass an open access policy, joining Harvard, Duke, Princeton, Stanford, MIT and others.

Traditionally, scholarly articles are published in journals that require subscriptions, usually paid for out of library budgets. These subscription costs are increasing annually — profit margins for major academic journal publishers surpass those of Apple, Google and Amazon. As early as 2012, Harvard told its faculty that sustaining the rising costs of journals was impossible, labeling the current system “absurd” and “damaging.”

When I participate in national conversations about open access publishing, I hear a mix of concern and optimism for the future. In 2014-15, the average university library spent 73 percent of its materials budget on serials. Experts agree that the price of academic journals will continue to outstrip inflation in 2018 and beyond, with no indication of change by the profitable publishers, despite outcry from academics and libraries everywhere.

However, market forecasters also predict that the growing pace of open access publishing will continue to increase, already representing about one-third of research publications. Most federal agencies and many private foundations now require the faculty they fund to publish their findings openly. In conjunction, many institutions — and some entire countries — have implemented open access policies.

These models are changing the scholarly publishing landscape. In some disciplines, open access is the standard. Publications in astronomy and astrophysics, for example, are 87 percent open. In fields like medicine and agriculture, publishing in open access journals has also become the norm. Part of the reason is that the cost of research disproportionately affects researchers, students and citizens in developing countries — sometimes the communities in greatest need of, for example, the latest medical and agricultural research.

At IU, the Open Access Policy passed by the Bloomington Faculty Council empowers individual faculty members to make a version of their scholarly journal articles open to all, or to opt out. The policy is now aligned with the IU faculty annual reporting system, where most faculty already enter information about their research and creative activity.

My team in the Department of Scholarly Communication is processing nearly 1,600 faculty-authored publications from the reporting system for inclusion in the IUScholarWorks institutional repository.

In response to the growing need for open access support on campus, we are developing core library services that support open scholarship and research transparency in an integrated way. These include our open access services, research data services, journal publishing services and emerging services around affordable and open course materials. We provide consultations with students and faculty, publishing services and instruction.

To contact the Scholarly Communication Department, schedule a consultation, or learn more about support for open scholarship on campus, visit their website.

MPH Data Day

Indiana’s Management Performance Hub (MPH) provides analytics solutions tailored to address complex management and policy questions enabling improved outcomes for Hoosiers. They empower partners to leverage data in innovative ways, facilitating data-driven decision making and data-informed policy making.

On March 6, MPH is hosting Data Day 2018 at the Indiana Statehouse. The MPH Data Day is an open event for people who want to share ideas and learn how Indiana is leading the nation with data and innovation. MPH partners who use Indiana data to positively impact the lives of Hoosiers will present their projects.

Presentations will run from 10:00 am to 2:00 pm in the North Atrium of the Statehouse. Food, refreshments, and data success stories will be shared.

Open Data and Open Government: A Workshop

View the original article.

The Center for International Media Law and Policy Studies at Indiana University Bloomington will hold a free daylong workshop March 17 in Indianapolis on access to information.

“Letting the Sunshine IN: An Open Data and Open Government Workshop” is open to anyone interested in open government and open data, including journalists, civic activists and neighborhood association members, said Anthony Fargo, director of the Center for International Media Law and Policy Studies and a co-organizer of the event.

The workshop will be in the ballroom of University Tower, 911 W. North St., on the IUPUI campus.

“The strength of our open government laws is that they apply to everyone, not just journalists or public officials,” said Fargo, an associate professor in The Media School at IU Bloomington. “Anyone at any time may need to gain access to records held by a government agency or attend a meeting of a public body, so all of us have a stake in learning how effective our access laws are.”

The workshop will take place during Sunshine Week, an annual national observance that highlights the importance of open government. Co-sponsors include the IndyPro Chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists and the Indiana Coalition for Open Government. Fargo and co-organizer Gerry Lanosga, an assistant professor in The Media School, are Indiana Coalition for Open Government board members.

Confirmed speakers at the conference include state, regional, and national journalists and open government advocates, who will participate in informational sessions about state and national access laws.

The workshop will close with a hands-on session on how to request data and metadata from public agencies. Experts will guide attendees in submitting actual requests to state agencies for information about their data sets. Participants should bring a laptop computer or other WiFi-capable device.

Lanosga said the goal is to launch an open online catalog of state data sets.

“We know that one of the key barriers to opening public data is lack of knowledge about the range of data that state agencies maintain,” he said. “This effort will go a long way to eliminating the unknowns about state data sets and make it easier for journalists and others in the public to request them.”

The workshop is made possible by a gift to the Center for International Media Law and Policy Studies from IU journalism alumna Barbara Restle. It is free to pre-registered participants and includes breakfast, lunch, and parking. Visitor parking is available in the North Street and Vermont Street parking garages and the Hine Hall Tower Garage.

Although there is no charge to attend the workshop, attendance is limited, and advance registration is required. The registration deadline is 5 p.m. March 12.

Click here for the workshop schedule and registration.