The IU Open Access Policy

This letter from Jamie Wittenberg, Research Data Management Librarian and Head of the IU Libraries’ Department of Scholarly Communication, was first published here.

Jamie Wittenburg. Photo by Eric Rudd, IU Communications

In 2015, almost 45 percent of articles across all disciplines were published open access as part of a growing worldwide movement to remove financial barriers to scholarly research.

As the head of the Department of Scholarly Communication for IU Libraries, which supports open publishing, I hold the conviction that anyone should be able to read, save and share research regardless of their ability to pay for it. This is perhaps unsurprising — I’m a librarian, and advancing knowledge by providing access to scholarly work is a core mission of IU Libraries. Publishing research in such a way that it is freely available on the open web for use and reuse around the world is the principle of “open access.”

In February 2017, the Bloomington Faculty Council adopted a policy in support of open access in journal publishing, stating, in part, “the faculty of Indiana University Bloomington is committed to disseminating the fruits of its research and scholarship as widely as possible.” This policy marked a milestone for IU and for the open access community. IU Bloomington’s was the 56th faculty council in the world to unanimously pass an open access policy, joining Harvard, Duke, Princeton, Stanford, MIT and others.

Traditionally, scholarly articles are published in journals that require subscriptions, usually paid for out of library budgets. These subscription costs are increasing annually — profit margins for major academic journal publishers surpass those of Apple, Google and Amazon. As early as 2012, Harvard told its faculty that sustaining the rising costs of journals was impossible, labeling the current system “absurd” and “damaging.”

When I participate in national conversations about open access publishing, I hear a mix of concern and optimism for the future. In 2014-15, the average university library spent 73 percent of its materials budget on serials. Experts agree that the price of academic journals will continue to outstrip inflation in 2018 and beyond, with no indication of change by the profitable publishers, despite outcry from academics and libraries everywhere.

However, market forecasters also predict that the growing pace of open access publishing will continue to increase, already representing about one-third of research publications. Most federal agencies and many private foundations now require the faculty they fund to publish their findings openly. In conjunction, many institutions — and some entire countries — have implemented open access policies.

These models are changing the scholarly publishing landscape. In some disciplines, open access is the standard. Publications in astronomy and astrophysics, for example, are 87 percent open. In fields like medicine and agriculture, publishing in open access journals has also become the norm. Part of the reason is that the cost of research disproportionately affects researchers, students and citizens in developing countries — sometimes the communities in greatest need of, for example, the latest medical and agricultural research.

At IU, the Open Access Policy passed by the Bloomington Faculty Council empowers individual faculty members to make a version of their scholarly journal articles open to all, or to opt out. The policy is now aligned with the IU faculty annual reporting system, where most faculty already enter information about their research and creative activity.

My team in the Department of Scholarly Communication is processing nearly 1,600 faculty-authored publications from the reporting system for inclusion in the IUScholarWorks institutional repository.

In response to the growing need for open access support on campus, we are developing core library services that support open scholarship and research transparency in an integrated way. These include our open access services, research data services, journal publishing services and emerging services around affordable and open course materials. We provide consultations with students and faculty, publishing services and instruction.

To contact the Scholarly Communication Department, schedule a consultation, or learn more about support for open scholarship on campus, visit their website.

Gendered Innovations: Lunch with Londa Schiebinger, MA, PhD

Dr. Londa Schiebinger will be on campus next week on Tuesday, March 6, to discuss The Secret Cures of Slaves as part of the History Talks! and IUPUI Diversity Speakers Series. In addition, she will present her work on Gendered Innovations over lunch.

This event is sponsored by the IUSM Office of Diversity Affairs. Lunch will be provided, so please be sure to register if you plan to attend! For more information or to register, click here.

Doing research wrong costs lives and money. For example, between 1997 and 2000, 10 drugs were withdrawn from the U.S. market because of life-threatening health effects. Eight of these posed ‘greater health risks for women than for men’ (U.S. GAO, 2001). Not only does developing a drug in the current market cost billions—but when drugs failed, they caused human suffering and death.

Gender bias also leads to missed market opportunities. In engineering, for example, considering short people (many women, but also many men) “out-of-position” drivers leads to greater injury in automobile accidents (see Pregnant Crash Test Dummies). In basic research, failing to use appropriate samples of male and female cells, tissues, and animals yields faulty results (see Stem Cells). In medicine, not recognizing osteoporosis as a male disease delays diagnosis and treatment in men (see Osteoporosis Research in Men). In city planning, not collecting data on caregiving work leads to inefficient transportation systems (see Housing and Neighborhood Design). We can’t afford to get the research wrong.

Doing research right can save lives and money. An analysis of the U.S. Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trial, for example, found that for every $1 spent, $140 were returned to taxpayers in health care savings. The study also saved lives, adding 145,000 more quality-adjusted life years (Roth et al., 2014).

It is crucially important to identify gender bias. But analysis cannot stop there: Gendered Innovations offer state-of-the-art methods of sex and gender analysis. Integrating these methods into basic and applied research produces excellence in science, health & medicine, and engineering research, policy, and practice. The methods of sex and gender analysis are one set of methods among many that a researcher will bring to a project.

Londa Schiebinger, MA, PhD is the John L. Hinds Professor of History of Science at Stanford University. She currently directs the EU/US Gendered Innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment project. She is a leading international expert on gender in science and technology and has addressed the United Nations on the topic of “Gender, Science, and Technology.” She is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the recipient of numerous prizes and awards, including the prestigious Alexander von Humboldt Research Prize and Guggenheim Fellowship. Her work on Gendered Innovations harnesses the creative power of sex and gender analysis to enhance excellence and reproducibility in science and technology.  More info can be found here.

Girls, Mentors, and STEM

View the original article from Steve Hinnefeld at the IU Newsroom.

Finding ways to interest girls in the STEM fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has challenged educators and policymakers. A project led by an Indiana University School of Education researcher will look for answers in the relationship between girls and their mentors.

The three-year project, called Role Models in Engineering Education, is funded by $1.2 million from the National Science Foundation. It is a collaboration with the Tufts Center for Engineering Education and Outreach at Tufts University. The principal investigator at IU is Adam Maltese, associate professor of science education.

The project builds on research that Maltese published recently in AERA Open, an open-access journal of the American Educational Research Association. The study examined how girls and boys develop and maintain interest in STEM topics in elementary and secondary school and in college.

It found that women who pursued STEM education and careers were likely to attribute their interest to the influence of a third party, often a teacher or mentor. Men, on the other hand, were more likely to say they developed an interest in STEM on their own via intrinsic interest and motivation.

“I think the important thing is to get away from the notion that one strategy will work to get all students interested in STEM,” Maltese said. “If we recognize that differences exist in how people get interested, and embrace that diversity when we work to increase interest, I think we’ll see better outcomes.”

The AERA Open study was co-authored by Christina Cooper, assistant professor of biology at Corban University, who holds a Ph.D. in science education from IU. It also found that men were more likely to report developing an initial interest in STEM as a result of “tinkering” or building things. Women were more likely to say they became interested as a result of play and outdoor activities.

“It comes down to memory and reporting,” Maltese said, “but men are more likely to reflect inward and report that interest was generated independently, whereas women are more likely to indicate that others played a role.”

The study was based on a survey of nearly 8,000 people, including college students, faculty and staff, and professionals solicited through a variety of channels.

Researchers also examined what caused some people to persist in STEM fields while others lost interest or became more interested in other subjects. At the college level, women are more likely than men to switch majors and enter or leave STEM as their interests and priorities change.

Discussion of why people do or don’t persist in STEM often focuses on the rigor of the curriculum and whether they are adequately prepared, Maltese said. But the study found that a major reason men and women chose and persisted in STEM fields was their interest in and passion for the subjects.

The three-year IU-Tufts project will seek a clearer understanding of how undergraduates act as role models and whether they trigger STEM interest in girls. Researchers will study a Tufts outreach program in which elementary students participate in an outreach program run by college engineering students. The study will increase understanding of how girls select and identify with role models and how these relationships might promote interest in engineering careers.

Getting more girls interested in engineering, researchers say, will improve educational and economic equity for women and increase the number of trained engineers, likely benefiting U.S. technological development.

To err is human? Kelley School researchers examine how errors affect credibility of online reviews

From News at IUPUI

Shoppers increasingly consult online reviews before making holiday purchases. But how do they decide which reviewers to trust?

Recently published research from the Indiana University Kelley School of Business at IUPUI shows that consumer trust in online reviews is influenced by spelling errors and typos. But how much those errors influence each consumer depends on the type of error and that consumer’s general tendency to trust others.

The study, from Dena Cox and Anthony Cox, both professors of marketing at the Kelley School, and Jeffrey Cox, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Communication at Michigan State University, examined nearly 300 people’s reactions to different online reviews with either no errors; typographical errors, such as common keystroke errors like “wsa” instead of “was”; or spelling errors like “sevral” or “useing.”

The study’s results suggest consumers who have a high level of trust in other people distinguish between these two types of errors in online reviews.

Anthony Cox, who also serves as the faculty chair of the Kelley Business of Medicine Physician MBA Program at IUPUI, says these high-trust consumers view misspellings as “errors of knowledge,” which they are willing to overlook, and typos as “errors of carelessness,” which erode their confidence in the reviewer.

Furthermore, consumers who have a low level of trust in others are not influenced one way or the other by reviews that contain either typographical errors or spelling mistakes, he explained.

“For high-trusters, typographical errors signaled a general lack of conscientiousness or carelessness that harmed reviewer credibility and reduced involvement with the content of the review,” Anthony Cox said.

“For example, a typographical error, like substituting ‘regualr’ for ‘regular,’ seems more likely to be attributed to careless writing by someone who ‘knows better,'” he added. “Conversely, a spelling error, like substituting ‘hite’ for ‘height,’ might be attributed to a lack of education or to a cognitive challenge such as dyslexia, traits over which the writer has little control.”

Online reviews are a mixed blessing, Anthony Cox said: “They are a source of not only information but also misinformation. You don’t know the reviewers. You don’t even know if they are who they say they are, if they’ve actually used the product or if someone paid them to write the review.”

When looking at online reviews, read carefully, he said, because your own level of trust in others will likely play a role in how you react to them.

Iraq Study Group Papers of former US Rep. Hamilton now available digitally through IU Libraries

From News at IU Bloomington

The Iraq Study Group Papers of former US Representative Lee Hamilton are now available in digital format from Indiana University Libraries, providing researchers and the public with a behind-the-scenes look at a bipartisan panel that influenced US policy in Iraq.

The collection, donated by Hamilton, consists of the electronic and paper files created by Hamilton and by his senior advisor and special assistant to the study group. The files document the formation of the group, its work, the creation of its final report, and follow-up activities.

“The Iraq Study Group marked a serious effort by Congress to examine the conduct of the Iraq War and to play its proper role by providing oversight of American foreign policy,” Hamilton said. “I am grateful to Indiana University Libraries for digitizing these records and making them accessible, and I hope that students of government and history will learn from them for years to come.”

The papers include notebooks, working papers, office files, meeting minutes, memos, and records of news media coverage of the study group’s work. Archivists have prepared an extensive guide allowing users to find and view a digital image of individual documents from the collection.

“This is an invaluable addition to IU Libraries’ collection of political papers on a topic that dominated the foreign policy debate at the time,” said Lee Feinstein, founding dean of the School of Global and International Studies. “This influential bipartisan commission, whose original membership included two future defense secretaries, gave voice to growing concern about the scope and intensity of the U.S. military commitment in Iraq and the importance of broader diplomatic engagement in the region.”

Carolyn Walters, the Ruth Lilly Dean of University Libraries, said she appreciates Hamilton’s continued commitment to preservation of committee documentation. She said the Iraq Study Group papers represent the third fully digitized collection in the Modern Political Papers Collection held at the Bloomington campus.

“This digitization and description work – while time-intensive – is important because it makes original, primary-source documents directly available through online access,” Walters said.

The Iraq Study Group was launched in March 2006, growing out of concerns that the United States was on the wrong path three years after it began military involvement in Iraq. Hamilton and former Secretary of State James A. Baker III chaired the 10-member, bipartisan task force, made up of former senators, cabinet members, and presidential advisers.

The group’s final report, issued in December 2006, was 160 pages long and included 79 recommendations. The report had a significant impact on American foreign policy in Iraq.

Four working groups of 44 foreign policy analysts, including staff of the U.S. Institute of Peace, among others, examined American policy in Iraq. The work included nine plenary sessions, a four-day trip to Baghdad, and interviews with over 170 experts, military officers, and political players in Iraq and the region.

Hamilton represented Indiana’s 9th District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1965 to 1999. He gained a reputation for foreign policy expertise, statesmanship, and a nonpartisan approach to solving problems. He served as co-chair of the joint House and Senate committee investigating the Iran-Contra Affair in 1987-88 and as vice chair of the 9/11 Commission in 2002-04. He is founder and senior advisor at the Center on Representative Government at IU Bloomington.

The Iraq Study Group papers are part of the IU Libraries’ Modern Political Papers Collection. The collection also includes Hamilton’s congressional papers and 9/11 Commission papers as well as congressional papers of former Senators Richard Lugar and Birch Bayh, press and political files of former Governor and Senator Evan Bayh, and other sets of documents.

Sea-level rise threatens archaeological and historic sites

Joshua Wells [photo courtesy of IUSB]
From News at IU.

Rising sea levels resulting from climate change will threaten vast numbers of archaeological and historic sites near the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern United States, according to a study co-authored by Indiana University researchers.

The study finds that a rise of 1 meter in sea levels, widely expected by the end of this century using accepted climate models, would submerge over 13,000 recorded archaeological sites, including more than 1,000 listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

“Every archaeological site is like a unique experiment that provides information about the particular people who lived in a particular area,” said co-author Joshua Wells, associate professor of anthropology and social informatics at IU South Bend. “Every time one of those is lost, that’s another set of knowledge that is washed away.”

In addition to Wells, co-authors include 2017 Ph.D. graduate Kelsey Noack Myers and doctoral student R. Carl DeMuth of IU Bloomington. Other authors are at the University of Tennessee, Northern Kentucky University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the California-based Alexandria Archive Institute.

The results, published in the journal PLOS One, come from analysis of data collected by the Digital Index of North American Archaeology. The index, known as DINAA, is a collaborative project by IU South Bend, the University of Tennessee and the Alexandria Archive Institute that aggregates archaeological and historical data sets from numerous sources.

Wells said archaeologists have historically thought sites were vulnerable to human disturbances like construction and looting. But sea-level rise is a new threat, one the researchers could analyze by combining climate projections with DINAA data.

“I think we were surprised by the scale,” Wells said. “We knew it would be significant, because throughout humanity’s existence, coastlines have been popular places for people to live. But we had no idea what the numbers would turn out to be.”

Threatened areas include American history icons like Jamestown, Virginia, and Charleston, South Carolina, along with sites that record the stories of people who lived in the Southeast before the arrival of Europeans, communities of escaped slaves and others. In addition to sites that would be inundated, others could be threatened as coastal residents move inland to escape rising seas.

The research demonstrates the importance of large, linked data sets such as DINAA, which make information accessible to researchers and policymakers, Wells said. It also can help raise awareness of what’s at stake with rising sea levels, sparking conversations about what can be done.

“We feel it’s vitally important to get this information out now when we have time to think about ways to save data and materials from these sites, and to do it strategically,” Wells said.

Since the study’s publication last week, Wells has been quoted in news stories in USA Today, Wired and National Geographic, and the research has also been covered by the Guardian, The Washington Post, Pacific Standard and other publications. More importantly to the authors, policymakers and researchers have already been in touch about using the results and the DINAA data.

“It’s really exciting to be all over the news,” Wells said, “but it’s even more exciting that the work is proving useful.”

From Inside Higher Ed: References and Citations for All

“Open citations now!” So concludes a new open letter to publishers from researchers who support making scholarly citations freely available, in the interest of better citation analysis. Advocates of such efforts say that references are a pillar of scholarly work and that being able to understand how articles cite each other shouldn’t require an expensive subscription to a database.

In short, just as open-access proponents argue for free access to scholarly articles, open-citation proponents want free access to publication citation data.

“References are a product of scholarly work and represent the backbone of science — demonstrating the origin and advancement of knowledge — and provide essential information for studying science and making decisions about the future of research,” the letter says. “We therefore issue a strong call to all publishers to make available to the academic community that which it created in the first place.”

The letter builds on the Initiative for Open Citations, or I4OC, which 60-some organizations and publishers launched in April. Goals of that initiative include the establishment of a global, public web of linked scholarly citation data to “enhance the discoverability of published content,” both subscription access and open access. Such a web would especially benefit those outside academic institutions – or outside wealthier universities – who lack subscriptions to commercial citation databases, according to I4OC.

Other benefits include the ability to build new services based on the data and create a public citation graph to explore connections between existing fields and the growth of new ones, advocates say.

Cassidy R. Sugimoto, an associate professor of informatics at Indiana University at Bloomington and president of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, is among the letter’s original signatories. She said Tuesday that open citations wouldn’t make a huge difference in her own work, since she has access to highly curated Web of Science data through her professional collaborations and affiliations. However, she said, “it would make a huge difference for students and scholars” worldwide who don’t have that “luxury.”

[Read More]

From Wired: It’s Gonna Get a Lot Easier to Break Science Journal Paywalls

Anurag Acharya’s problem was that the Google search bar is very smart, but also kind of dumb. As a Googler working on search 13 years ago, Acharya wanted to make search results encompass scholarly journal articles. A laudable goal, because unlike the open web, most of the raw output of scientific research was invisible—hidden behind paywalls. People might not even know it existed. “I grew up in India, and most of the time you didn’t even know if something existed. If you knew it existed, you could try to get it,” Acharya says. “‘How do I get access?’ is a second problem. If I don’t know about it, I won’t even try.”

Acharya and a colleague named Alex Verstak decided that their corner of search would break with Google tradition and look behind paywalls—showing citations and abstracts even if it couldn’t cough up an actual PDF. “It was useful even if you did not have university access. That was a deliberate decision we made,” Acharya says.

Then they hit that dumbness problem. The search bar doesn’t know what flavor of information you’re looking for. You type in “cancer;” do you want results that tell you your symptoms aren’t cancer (please), or do you want the Journal of the American Medical Association? The search bar doesn’t know.

Acharya and Verstak didn’t try to teach it. Instead, they built a spinoff, a search bar separate from Google-prime that would only look for journal articles, case law, patents—hardcore primary sources. And it worked. “We showed it to Larry [Page] and he said, ‘why is this not already out?’ That’s always a positive sign,” Acharya says.

[Read More]

Virtual and augmented high-performance tech is reality at IUPUI

Mike Boyles uses an IQ-Wall in the AV Lab. Photo by Tim Brouk, IU Communications

From News at IUPUI.

Twenty years ago, the top tech trends included high-speed internet, zip disks, and DVDs.

1997 was also the year the Advanced Visualization Lab made its debut. Spread across Indiana University and IUPUI, the lab didn’t concentrate on dial-up modems and boxy PCs, which were typical of the time. The labs looked at the future of visualizing research in ways that seemed lightyears ahead of the times. The star in IUPUI’s lab was the ImmersaDesk, a then-state-of-the-art augmented reality facility to enhance the user’s experience with programming. It was also established as part of the Research Technologies division of UITS and the Pervasive Technology Institute.

Today, the Advanced Visualization Lab at IUPUI has expanded to two spaces on the fourth floor of the Informatics and Communications Technology Complex. The rooms concentrate on virtual and augmented reality experiences, 3-D scanning and printing, and visualization through portable IQ-Walls and the futuristic IQ-Table, the 94-inch cousin to IQ-Walls that specializes in showcasing media collections from IUPUI.

Both spaces are open to students and faculty members to assist with research or class projects. While the amount of technology has expanded, Lab staff members like Mike Boyles say the expansion includes users. What was once designed for the few dozens of the techiest of technology students has grown to include thousands of users from almost every discipline at IUPUI.

“We are able to scale out services and help people more than ever,” said Boyles, the Lab manager. “We are doing things at a bigger scale than we ever have.” That scale involves serving all of the IU campuses around the state. The democratization of the technology means this is no longer the domain of the elite. [Read More]

IUPUI in pilot program to validate employability of graduates

Photo by Liz Kaye, IU Communications

From News at IUPUI.

In an ever-changing employment world, does a college degree fully prepare newcomers to the workforce?

IUPUI is among 14 higher education institutions across North America working to find out. As participants in the Essential Employability Qualities Pilot led by The Quality Assurance Commons for Higher and Postsecondary Education, these institutions are co-designing ways to assess and affirm higher education programs that intentionally develop essential employability qualities within students; engage students and employers in quality assurance; assure that graduates are prepared for the employment world after they complete their program; and communicate openly and accurately with the public.

According to a 2015 Gallup-Purdue Index report, while 98 percent of chief academic officers rate their institutions as very or somewhat effective at preparing students for the employment world, only 11 percent of business leaders strongly agree that graduating students have the necessary skills and competencies.

“That gap is large enough to show there’s a serious issue about communication on what graduates should be able to do,” said Bill Plater, senior scholar at The QA Commons and executive vice chancellor and dean of the faculties emeritus at IUPUI. “We’ve been talking to many employers, and almost every one of them has a set of expectations of what employees need to do to be successful. Employers are great at looking at the specific skill a person needs in the field of work, but what they don’t really know how to do well is assess things like critical thinking, communication skills and problem-solving.”

Many employers and their respective professional associations often specify the so-called soft skills that most colleges and universities say they provide, frequently using the same words to describe the qualities employers seek, but there is little agreement on what the terms actually mean — and what evidence of attainment is acceptable. The QA Commons is developing standards and processes to certify that a program or department actually prepares all of its graduates with the qualities that employers really want. Employers can then rely on a certified program’s claim that its graduates have acquired the essential skills.

The nature of work in many fields has changed dramatically in the last few decades. For example, technology has changed manufacturing jobs from human assembly-line work to automated work, requiring employees to think differently about the manufacturing process. An aging workforce in some areas has also altered the employment landscape.

The essential employability qualities that EEQ Pilot participants seek to develop in graduates include people skills such as collaboration, teamwork, and cross-cultural experience; problem-solving abilities such as inquiry, critical thinking, and creativity; and professional strengths such as communication, work ethic, and technological agility.

At IUPUI, bachelor of arts programs in philanthropic studies in the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy as well as IU School of Liberal Arts programs in English and the paralegal studies program, including the law in liberal arts bachelor’s degree and paralegal studies certificate, are participating in the pilot.

“It’s a way to develop a common language. Our language in academia doesn’t necessarily match up with an employer’s language,” said Erin Engels, director of the paralegal studies program and an assistant clinical professor of political science in the School of Liberal Arts. “We need to communicate to students, too: You’re not just learning about the history of politics and how people interact in government; we’re helping you navigate the politics of the workplace.”

Pilot participants met in September to work on a yearlong plan. Participants represent a range of disciplines, learning formats and degree levels and include public, private, for-profit and faith-based institutions.

“We all benefit by participating because we’ll get ideas from other programs and resources to help our students,” said Steve Fox, director of writing and associate professor of English in the School of Liberal Arts. “What we want to do is ultimately help our students be employable when they graduate and be able to improve communication with employers so there’s good feedback among all of these parties.”

The QA Commons and the EEQ Pilot are funded through the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, under a grant from Indianapolis-based Lumina Foundation.