History H364/H546  DR. SCHNEIDER
History of Medicine and Public Health CA 235
    Mon. 6:00-8:40 p.m. Fall 2014


SYLLABUS
http://www.iupui.edu/~histwhs/h364.dir/h364.syl.html

Notes and announcements

Note:

Important: There is a typo and possible confusion in the Reading analysis question for the December 8 class. Part of the question is to comare the Burnham article to the one by Brandt and Gardner in their views of the "Golden Age."

Be sure to check this website weekly and before class for notes and reminders. This syllabus was last modified on December 7, 2014. It is subject to changes which will be announced in class.

Please report any links that do not work to the instructor at: whschnei@iupui.edu (NOTE: Oncourse email will NOT be used for this course.)

Course overview:

This course is a survey of the history of medicine, focusing on the period since 1800. It examines the emergence of what is commonly referred to as modern, Western, or scientific medicine. In sum, this is the medicine practiced in U.S. hospitals and taught at U.S. medical schools today. This is a broad survey, hence it is not the story of inevitable progress. The social and economic influences as well as their impact are also part of what is studied.

The first half of the course covers the background and key developments in the nineteenth century. This was a crucial period in the formation of modern medicine and includes new definitions of disease and diagnosis, the discovery of anesthesia and antisepsis, and the emergence of the two pillars of modern medicince: the university based medical school and the modern hospital. The second part looks at the twentieth century, a period of additional change and increasing complexity. Topics include tropical (global) medicine, war and medicine, the development of "miracle" drugs, and public health. The course concludes with a look at selected examples of developments after 1950, a time characterized as the rise and fall of the "golden age" of medicine.

Required Textbook:
Deborah Brunton, ed. Medicine Transformed: Health, Disease and Society in Europe, 1800-1930 (2004) $35.00

Rothman, et al., Medicine and Western Civilization (Rutgers: Rutgers University Press, 1995), $27.50 paper

Supplemental Readings:

Other readings listed below are either available on the web or in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.

Note: Some of the readings on the web require you to give your IUPUI userid and password.

Other Resources: Click here for links to additional readings, other books, history of medicine web resources such as databases, National Library of Meidicne, PubMed, historical newspapers (e.g., New York Times), etc. These will be useful for additional information about topics of interest, and for research paper assignments.

 

Course Requirements H364 (undergraduate)

1) Class and readings

This class meets weekly and consists primarily of lecture, reading, and discussion. The readings are listed below

All required readings are to be read by all students. Some additional readings are listed for graduate students.

The study questions are meant to help focus on the main points of the readings.

Outlines are sometimes given to help when a lot of material is introduced for a class.

The Rothman reader has documents from the history of medicine. In reading these and additional documents from the web, the main questions to answer are: when and where was the document written, by whom, for whom, and what is its significance for the history of medicine?

2) Assignments

There will be occasional assignments to hand in. These include:

Reading analyses: There will be several opportunities during the semester to write a two-page analysis of a reading assignment for a given class. You are encouraged to do them all and required to do at least three: two of these before the midterm and one after. They will be graded, and additional analyses can replace a low grade. These assignments are indicated below for each particular class.Click here for a complete list of these readings and questions.

Short paper on medical education: all students will write a paper on the history of medical education in the U.S. Instructions are given below for the class when it is due, and click here for more information about the paper assignments.

There will also be a medium length (6-8 page) paper (for undergraduates) due, just before the end of the semester. Click here for more information about the paper assignments.

For late papers, see "Class Policies" below.

 

3) Exams

The midterm and final exams are designed to test your understanding of the reading assignments and the materials covered in class.  You are responsible for all the information in the reading assignments; therefore, you should take good notes while you read. 

To guide you in your reading, use the Study Questions provided for each class topic. In addition, class will provide background, answer questions, and help highlight the more important parts of the readings. Students are therefore advised, even if they have an excused absence, to get notes from a fellow student when a class is missed. 

For missed exams, see "Class Policies" below.

4) Determination of grade

All assignments must be completed to receive a passing grade. The relative weight of these assignments and exams in determining the final grade will be as follows:

Undergraduate student grade:

25% Midterm
25% Class grade (includes the reading analyses and short paper)
20% Medium-length (6-8 pp.) paper
30% Final exam

Assignments will be graded on a letter grade scale ( A, A-, B+, B, B-, etc.) and averaged according to the following point scale and percentage weight.

 

 

B+

(3.3 Pts.)

C+

(2.3 Pts.)

D+

(1.3 Pts.)

A

(4.0 Pts.)

B

(3.0 Pts.)

C

(2.0 Pts.)

D

(1.0 Pts.)

A-

(3.7 Pts.)

B-

(2.7 Pts.)

C-

(1.7 Pts.)

D-

(0.7 Pts.)

WF

Withdrawn Failing (0 Pts.)

F

Failing (0 Pts.)

Note: undergraduate History majors and graduate students usually count this course as either a European or American History course for their requirements, depending on their paper topic. See the instructor about making arrangements.

Graduate Requirements H546 (graduate)

Graduate students, in addition to performing at a higher level than undergraduates on the above assignments, will be required to write take-home essays of longer length.

They will also be required to write an additional short paper (5 pages) on the discovery and use of x-rays (click here for instructions), and they will write a term paper in place of the medium length paper and final exam. The relative weight of these assignments and exams in determining the final grade of graduate students will be as follows:

Graduate student grade:

25% Midterm
35% Class grade (includes the take home essays, short papers and other assignments)
40% Term paper

 

 

B+

(3.3 Pts.)

C+

(2.3 Pts.)

D+

(1.3 Pts.)

A

(4.0 Pts.)

B

(3.0 Pts.)

C

(2.0 Pts.)

D

(1.0 Pts.)

A-

(3.7 Pts.)

B-

(2.7 Pts.)

C-

(1.7 Pts.)

D-

(0.7 Pts.)

WF

Withdrawn Failing (0 Pts.)

F

Failing (0 Pts.)

Note that a final grade for a graduate course of less than C (2.0) is not typically counted towards a degree requirement. Some departments may require a final grade in graduate courses higher than B (3.0).

5) Class policies

Attendance in class is essential for success in this course. If you miss a class, you must contact the instructor before the next class meeting. Two consecutive unexcused absences will be reported to the university administration for determination of possible unofficial withdrawal.

Late papers may be accepted but are subject to a grade reduction penalty.

If you miss the midterm exam due to illness or other serious conflicts, it is your responsibility to contact the professor as soon as possible to schedule a make-up.  No make-up exams will be given after the exams have been returned to the class (typically within two weeks of the original exam).  There is no make-up exam for the final.

Be sure you understand the school's policy on plagiarism (copying) or cheating. See IU Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct Part 3, Section A Number 3 for further definition. Those guilty of it will be dealt with in accordance with the regulations spelled out in the code.

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The time and relative weight of these assignments may be changed during the term. If so, they will be announced in advance during class and be incorporated in the syllabus on-line. Be sure to check the syllabus on-line at least weekly and especially before every class for any changes or announcements.

To contact the instructor outside of class:

Office hours

CA-141, M 2:00 - 3:00 p.m., W 3:00 - 4:00 p.m. or by appointment

Phone

274-4740

e-mail

whschnei@iupui.edu (NOTE: Oncourse email will NOT be used for this course)

Date Topic and Reading (note: highlighted text are www links for readings or more info.)

Aug 25 Introduction: Overview

Required reading:

There are Powerpoint slides in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class (compressed and abbreviated).

Brunton, "Preface," ix-xvii

Rothman, 1-10, Introduction

[If you are unable to get the books before class, do the readings right after class because they will also be discussed at the next class.]

Web links:
Causes of Death.London 1665, U.S. 1997, World, 1998 (Click orig. for original)
World Death Rate according to The Onion

Disease and History

Study Questions

Disease and History: Disease in human history; definition, cause and cure of disease; epidemics

Required reading:
Roy Porter, "Chapter 1: Disease," in Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine," 1-20 (Available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Download and read this before class, if possible. Otherwise you can read it after class.

Sep 1 Labor Day: no class

 

Sep 8 Traditional healing; natural medicine in ancient Greece

Traditional healing in pre-modern cultures

Study Questions

Required reading:

Rothman
"The Bible," 263-6,
Jordan of Turre, "The Symptoms of Lepers (1313-35)," 209-11
Ulrich von Hutten, "On the Beginning of the French Pox (1519)," 212-16

Leviticus, Chapters 13 and 14 "Laws concerning leprosy"

Reading analysis #1 Click here for readings and questions.

Recommended (graduate student) reading:
Boccaccio: The Decameron - Introduction and description of plague (1348)

The Origin of Western Scientific Medicine(1): ancient Greece

Study Questions

Required reading:
Rothman
Hippocrates (460-377 b.c.), "The Nature of Man," 43-47; (click here for on-line version) "The Sacred Disease," 139-44 (click here for on-line version)
Hippocrates, "The Hippocratic Oath," 261-2 (click here)

IU School of Medicine Hippocratic oath

Reading analysis #2 Click here for readings and questions

Sep 15 The Origin of Western Scientific Medicine(2): The Renaissance & Scientific Revolution; Medicine in 1800

Required reading:
Rothman
Andreas Vesalius, "The Fabric of the Human Body (1543)," 54-60 (click here for on-line version)
William Harvey, "Anatomical Study on the Motion of the Heart... (1628)," 68-78 (click here for on-line version and read "Letter to the King," "Dedication To His Very Dear Friend, Doctor Argent," "Prefatory Remarks," and "Chapter 1")

William Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood (1957 film)

The practice of medicine in 1800

Study Questions

Required reading:

Lester King, "The Practice of Medicine in 1787" Illinois Medical Journal, 107(1955), 130-5 (Available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Recommended (graduate student) reading:
Thomas Jefferson on medicine in 1800
letter to William Green Munford, 1799 (orig.)
letter to Caspar Wistar , 1807 (orig.)
letter to Edward Jenner , 1806 (orig.)

Sep 22 19th Century Foundations of Scientific Medicine: Laennec and new tools of diagnosis

New Concepts of disease and diagnosis

Study Questions

Powerpoint slides in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class (compressed and abbreviated)

Required reading:

L. S. Jacyna, "The Localization of Disease," in Brunton, 1-30

N. D. Jewson, "The disappearance of the sick-man from medical cosmology, 1770-1870," International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;1-12 (orig. publ 1976) (Available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Reading analysis #3 Click here for readings and questions.

Rothman
R.T.H. Laennec, "A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest and on Mediate Auscultation (1818)," 310-13

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, "On a New Kind of Rays," read before the Würzburg Physical and Medical Society, 1895. [Translated by Arthur Stanton, Nature 53, 274 (1896).] (orig.)

[Note grad student assignment on this topic due Oct. 13; you should get a head start on it.Click here for information about the paper.]

Additional web resource:

The Visible Human Project at the National Library of Medicine

Sep 29 19th Century Foundations of Scientific Medicine: Anesthesia, Antisepsis and Surgery, 1800-1900

Study Questions (Note the addition of another question about the Burney reading.)

Powerpoint slides in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class (compressed and abbreviated)

Required reading:

Thomas Schlich, "The Emergence of Modern Surgery," in Brunton, 61-91

Anesthesia and Surgery, 1800-1900

Rothman
Frances Burney, "A Mastectomy (1811)," 383-89
James Young Simpson, "Answer to the Religious Objections Advanced against the Employment of Anesthetic Agents in Midwifery and Surgery (1849)," 398-401

Reading analysis #4 Click here for readings and questions.

Additional web resource: Relief of Pain and Suffering, exhibit at UCLA March 1998

Pain Alleviation and "Anesthesia" 19th Century and Earlier
The Anesthesia Revolution of the1800s Early Experiments with Surgical Anesthesia

Antisepsis and Surgery, 1800-1900

Powerpoint slides to be available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class (compressed and abbreviated)

Required reading:
Rothman
Ignacz Semmelweis, "The Etiology, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever (1861)," 240-46
Joseph Lister, "On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery (1867)," 247-52

Oct 6 Laboratory Medicine; From Tropical medicine to Global Health

NOTE: Class will meet at the
Indiana Medical History Museum
3045 W. Vermont Street
For directions from campus, click here; and for a map, vist the museum website.

Study questions

Required reading:
Deborah Brunton, "The Rise of Laboratory Medicine," 92-117

Disease Discoveries and Treatments 1876-1910

Rothman
Robert Koch, "The Aetiology of Tuberculosis (1882),"319-29
Florence Nightingale, "Notes on Hospitals (1859)," 360-64 (reread)

From Tropical medicine to Global Health

Michael Worboys, "Colonial and Imperial Medicine," in Brunton, 211-38

Recommended (graduate student) reading:

Myron Echenburg, "Pestis Redux: The Intial Years of the Third Bubonic Plague Pandemic, 1891-1901," Journal of World History, 13 (2002), 429-49 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Reading analysis #5 Click here for readings and questions.

Oct 13 The Rise of Modern Nursing; Hospitals to 1900; review for midterm

Powerpoint slides

The Rise of Modern Nursing

Study Questions
Outline available on Nursing and Hospitals

Required reading:
Maxine Rhodes, "Women in Medicine: Doctors and Nurses, 1850-1920," in Brunton, 164-76

Richard H. Shryock, "Nursing Emerges as a Profession: The American Experience," in Sickness and Health in America, Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, eds. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), 203-15. (Available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Reading analysis #6 Click here for readings and questions.

Description of Sairy Gamp, nurse and midwife
from Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1844)

"Florence Nightingale: obituary in London Times, (click here)

Graduate students paper assignment due this date.
"Impact of medical discovery: Röntgen's X-rays"
Click here for information about the paper.

The following is useful information about format of notes for papers.

Hospitals in 1900

Study questions

Required reading:
Hilary Marland, "The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900," in Brunton, 31-60

Rothman

Massachusetts General Hospital,"By-Laws, Rules and Regulations (1861)," 365-67
Florence Nightingale, "Notes on Hospitals (1859)," 360-64
Michel Foucault, "The Birth of the Clinic (1963)," 376-82

Dora B. Weiner, The Citizen-Patient in Revolutionary and Imperial Paris, (Baltimore and London: JohnsHopkins University Press,1993), pp. 177-83. (Available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Powerpoint slides (compressed and abbreviated)

Oct 20 Fall Break

 

Oct 27 Midterm; Twentieth century medicine

Timeline of 20th Century History and Medicine

 

Nov 3 Medical Profession and Education: from 19th to 20th century; the IU School of Medicine

Outline of U.S. Medical Education reform

Study Questions

Required reading:
Brunton, "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" 119-50
Maxine Rhodes, "Women in Medicine: Doctors and Nurses, 1850-1920," in Brunton, 151-64; 176-79

Rothman
Philippe Pinel, "The Clinical Training of Doctors, (1793)" 343-51
Edward Hammond Clarke, “Sex in Education,” 92-6
Mary Jacobi, "Do Women Require Mental and Bodily Rest during Menstruation? (1886)" 97-102

Arthur Conan Doyle, "The Doctors of Hoyland" (from Round the Red Lamp, 1894) (Click here for original)

Reading analysis #7 Click here for readings and questions.

Medical Education after 1900: the IU School of Medicine

Guest Lecturer, Kevin Grau, author of a book in progress on the History of the IU School of Medicine.

Recommended reading:

Walter J. Daly, "The Origins of President Bryan's Medical School," Indiana Magazine of History, 97 (2002), 266-84 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)https://oncourse.iu.edu/

See also the following timeline: Medical Schools in Indiana

Letters to Indiana University President William Loeb Bryan (1906-1934) (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.). Focus on the following document and letters:

Indiana State Board of Medical Registration and Examination (1906)
October 1915 report on enrollment from Myers
October 6, 1921 letter from Emerson to Bryan
October 6, 1921 letter from Emerson to Bryan
May 6, 1923 Emerson to Bryan
November 15,1927 Emerson report to the Board of Trustees, especially the first 4 pages
October 19, 1920 Emerson to Bryan
July 21, 1920 Emerson to Bryan

Nov 10 20th century medical education; public health to 1900

20th century medical education

Assignment due and discussion: Medical education in the U.S. in the twentieth century
Click here for more information about the paper assignment.

Required reading for assignment:

For background, read Kenneth Ludmerer, Learning to Heal (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1985), 3-8 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.).

Recommended reading:

Walter J. Daly, "The Origins of President Bryan's Medical School," Indiana Magazine of History, 97 (2002), 266-84 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

IU School of Medicine History webpage

The Rise of public health in the 19th and early 20th century

Study Questions

Deborah Brunton, "Dealing With Disease in Populations: Public Health, 1830-1880," in Brunton, 180-210

Elmore JG, Feinstein AR., "Joseph Goldberger: an unsung hero of American clinical epidemiology," Ann Intern Med. 1994 Sep 1;121(5):372-5 (original)

Bill Bynum, "The McKeown thesis," The Lancet, Volume 371, Issue 9613, Pages 644 - 645, 23 February 2008 (available online at University Library, Electronic Journal List; contact instructor if you have problems locating article; also available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Recommended (graduate student) reading:

Rothman
Edwin Chadwick, "Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain(1842), " 217-39

Pinkney, David H., "Napoleon III's Transformation of Paris: The Origins and Development of the Idea," Journal of Modern History 1955 27(2): 125-134 (available online at University Library, Electronic Journal List; contact instructor if you have problems locating article; only available in JSTOR database)

Additional web resource:

Water filtration and typhoid fever death rates

Recent statistics on world health and income (or view a lecture by Hans Rosling)

Nov 17 20th century Public Health, Genetics and Eugenics

Study questions

Powerpoint slides on history of 20th century public health and eugenics are available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.

Required reading:

Paul Weindling, "From Germ Theory to Social Medicine: Public Health, 1880-1930," in Brunton, 239-65

James Moore, "The Fortune of Eugenics," in Brunton, 266-97

Pernick, Martin S. "Eugenics and public health in American history." American Journal of Public Health, 1997 (87): 1767-1772 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Jason S. Lantzer and Alexandra Minna Stern, “Building A Fit Society: Indiana's Eugenics Crusaders” Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, (Winter 2007): 4-11 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Additional web resource:

Fit to Breed? The History and Legacy of Indiana Eugenics, 1907-2007: a virtual website based on an exhibit about the history of eugenics in Indiana that appeared at the Indiana State Library in 2007.

Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement

Tomorrow's Children (1934) a short (52 min.) film examining eugenic questions :available on Youtube

Nov 24 The Development of Miracle Drugs; WWII: War and Medicine

Miracle Drugs
On Paul Ehrlich and three "miracle" drugs: insulin, penicillin, and streptomycin

Study Questions

Powerpoint slides on miracle drugs are available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.

Required reading:

James Lind: A Treatise of the Scurvy, 1753 excerpts (For original click here.)

Selman A. Waksman, “Paul Ehrlich-As Man And Scientist,” Bull N Y Acad Med. 1952 May; 28(5): 336–343 (Click here or also available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Michael J. Bliss, "J.J.R. Macleod and the discovery of insulin," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 1989;74:87–96 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Presentation speech for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1945, to Sir Alexander Fleming, Doctor Ernst B. Chain, and Sir Howard Florey

Presentation speech for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952 to Selman Waksman

WWII: War and Medicine

Study Questions

Powerpoint slides on war and medicine are available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.

Required reading:

Roger Cooter, "Medicine in War," in Brunton, 331-63

John Keegan, "Introduction," A History of Military Medicine, Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz (1994), vol 1: xi-xiii (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

E.C. Andrus, "Foreward", and Chester S. Keefer, "Part 9: Penicillin: A Wartime Achievement," in Advances in Military Medicine, eds. E.C. Andrus et al. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948), 1: xli-xlviii; 2: 717-22 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Reading analysis #8 Click here for readings and questions.

Powerpoint slides on war and medicine (compressed and abbreviated)

Additional web resource:

World War I: The medical Front
U.S. Army Medical Department in WWII

Dec 1 Paper presentations

Paper due: Click here for more information about paper assignment.
The following is useful information about format of notes for papers.

 

Dec 8 Trends after 1945: The "golden age" of the 1950; race and medicine

Trends after 1945: The "golden age" of the 1950s

Study Questions

Required reading:

Burnham, John C. "American medicine's golden age: What happened to it?" Science, 215 (March 19, 1982), 1474-79 ( available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class. Also available from University Library; in e-journals..)

Allan M. Brandt and Martha Gardner, ""The Golden Age of Medicine?"in Medicine in the Twentieth Century, Roger Cooter and John Pickstone eds., (Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishing, 2000), pp.
21-37. ( available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

Reading analysis #9 Click here for readings and questions.

Recommended reading:

James Le Fanu, "The Fall of Medicine," Prospect Magazine, 43 (July 1999)

Additional web resource:
"The Lifesaving Century" (Indianapolis Star, April 25, 1999)

Powerpoint slides on the "Golden Age" of medicine (compressed and abbreviated)

Race and medicine

Study Questions

Powerpoint slides on Tuskegee syphilis experiment (compressed and abbreviated)

Rothman

Zora Neale Hurston, "My Most Humiliating Jim Crow Experience (1944)," 288-89

"Hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Health (1973),"330-40

Brandt AM (1978) Racism and Research: The case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The Hastings Center 8:21-29 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

 

Dec 15

Trends after 1945: Access to healthcare; review for final

Powerpoint slides on history of access to healthcare are available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.

Required reading:

Deborah Brunton, "Access to Health Care, 1880-1930," 364-94

Rothman

George Orwell, "How the Poor Die (1946)," 368-75

Ronald L. Numbers, “The Third Party: Health Insurance in America,” in Sickness and Health in America, ed. by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers (3rd ed.; Madison, Wis., 1997), 269-83 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

"The NHS's 50th Anniversary, BMJ Vol. 317 4 July 1998, 97-107 (available in the "Resources" section of the Oncourse site for this class.)

-Michael Portillo, "Something to celebrate: The Bevan legacy"
-David Morrell, "As I recall"
-Charles Webster, "The BMA and the NH"

Aaron Carroll, "Support for National Health Insurance among U.S. Physicians: 5 Years Later," Annals of Internal Medicine, 148 (2008), 566-7

Additional web resource:

Important dates in the history of health insurance

Health Care Spending in the United States and OECD Countries
January 2007

 

Dec 19

Final Exam: Friday, 6:00-8:00 p.m.