Notable American Philanthropists: A Biographical Encyclopedia

Historical Philanthropists (Final List)
January 2000

Jane Addams (1860-1935), Founder and head of Hull House, leader of the American social settlement movement, prominent peace activist, and Nobel Peace Prize winner. She worked toward several reforms, including the first juvenile court, tenement-house regulations, an eight-hour workday for women, factory inspections, and worker's compensation. She also fought for the rights of immigrants and blacks, advocated research aimed at determining the causes of poverty and crime, and supported woman suffrage. At The Hague in 1915, she served as chairman of the International Congress of Women (which became the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom). Addams' books include Democracy and Social Ethics (1902) and Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910).

Roger Nash Baldwin (1884-1981), Founder of the National Civil Liberties Bureau in New York City, which would later become the American Civil Liberties Union. He saw his lifetime work (with the ACLU) driven by a desire to "fight for the underdog" in all parts of the political spectrum – from the Scopes trial, to the Ku Klux Klan as well as Sacco and Vanzetti.

Clara Barton (1821-1912), Founder of the American Red Cross and leader of numerous charitable ventures. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she organized an agency to obtain and distribute supplies for the relief of wounded soldiers. In 1865, at the request of President Abraham Lincoln, she set up a bureau of records to aid in the search for missing men. In Europe, she became associated with the International Red Cross, and then established the American National Red Cross (1881). She wrote the American amendment to the constitution of the Red Cross, which provides for the distribution of relief not only in war but also in times of calamities such as famines, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, and pestilence. Barton conducted relief for disaster sufferers in the 1880s-90s and served as president of the American Red Cross until 1904, She wrote several books, including History of the Red Cross (1882) and The Red Cross in Peace and War (1899).

Anthony Benezet (1713-1784), Eminent teacher, Quaker, abolitionist, and social reformer. In 1755, distressed at the unequal educational opportunities afforded women, he established a school for girls and devoted the remainder of his life to teaching. By the 1760s, Benezet was also an ardent abolitionist, writing and distributing pamphlets at his own expense to encourage opposition to slavery and the slave trade. Late in his life, he established and taught a school for blacks (his will left his modest estate to endow the school). At various times during his long philanthropic career, Benezet came to the assistance of refugee French Acadians, American Indians, and other persecuted minorities. Pacifism, vegetarianism, and temperance were other causes he championed.

Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-1878), Educator, anti-suffragist, reformer, and author who popularized and shaped a conservative ideological movement to both elevate and entrench woman's place in the domestic sphere of American culture. Beecher urged the training of young women in domestic science and teaching. She founded the Hartford Female Seminary in 1823 and later opened the Western Female Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio (1832). She also organized the American Woman's Educational Association (1852) to establish teachers' colleges for women. Her major works includes A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1841).

Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955), A civil rights activist who was the founder of the National Council of Negro Women (1935) and founder of Bethune-Cookman College (only historically black college, founded by a women, still in operation today). Bethune also served as the Director of the Division of Negro Affairs in the Franklin D. Roosevelt presidential administration.

Ballington Booth, (1857-1940) and Maud Booth (1865-1948) [done as one entry], Founders and National Commanders of Volunteers of America, Salvation Army of America leaders, and leaders in religion and humanitarian service. Ballington was the son of British Salvation Army founder William Booth and started preaching on London streets in his teens (he held the rank of Colonel in the Salvation Army by 1880). Maud was born into an elite family and joined the Salvation Army at the age of 17. The couple married in 1886 and subsequently sailed to America (1887) with orders to take command of the Salvation Army in that country. During Booth's years as national commander (1887-1896), the Salvation Army grew in numbers and prestige. Increasingly, social service programs such as day nurseries, food pantries, and affordable lodgings for working men and women were added to the Army’s evangelical mission. Maud organized a brigade of Salvation Army "slum sisters" who gave up their uniforms and moved into tenements to live among the immigrant families. The couple, however, resigned from the Salvation Army and founded Volunteers of America in 1896. Ballington believed Volunteers of America would serve the destitute as well as the emerging middle-classes, especially those with no church affiliation. He also positioned the organization as a meeting ground where people of all faiths could come together in service. In 1896, Maud started to reform the nation's prisons (a 52 year ministry to the men inside their walls). In 1896, she also opened what is believed to be the nation's first half-way house for released prisoners (Hope Hall No. 1) and helped build a nationwide parole system. Maud became national commander of the Volunteers of America in 1940 (after Ballington's death) and organized its wartime service efforts.

Evangeline Booth (1865-1950), Perhaps the greatest public figure and newsmaker in the American Salvation Army movement, she served as the National Commander of the American Salvation Army and fostered that long-term movement within the United States. In 1896, she traveled to New York and with her persuasive oratory skills; she kept most of the army officers from joining her brother Ballington’s new organization, (Volunteers of America). In 1904, she took command of the Salvation Army of America. To promote the movement, she would enthrall audiences with her dramatic presentations billed as "Miss Booth in Rags." Her dramatic ability was often compared to Sarah Bernhardt. As National Commander, she was also largely responsible for The Salvation Army's volunteers who served as chaplains and "Doughnut Girls" during World War I.

Charles Loring Brace (1826-1890), Reformer, pioneer social-welfare worker, and founder and executive secretary (1853-1890) of the Children's Aid Society of New York City. In 1872, he wrote an autobiographical account of his work, The Dangerous Classes of New York, and Twenty Years' Work Among Them, which established him as a world authority on child welfare. At his death, Brace's work had affected the lives of over 300,000 children.

Robert Somers Brookings, (1850-1932), Brookings entered a St. Louis, Mo., woodenware company at the age of 17. Four years later, he and his brother opened their own woodenware firm and during the next 25 years extended their interests into real estate and the lumbering and transportation industries. Following his retirement in 1896, Brookings devoted his time to the development of Washington University in St. Louis. As president of the university corporation (1897-1928), he helped relocate the school, induced wealthy St. Louis citizens to contribute money for buildings and endowments, and helped raise the medical school to a position of academic excellence. He was also one of the original trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and during World War I served as chairman of the price-fixing committee of the War Industries Board. After the war, he became the first board chairman of the Institute for Government Research and helped found the Institute of Economics and the Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government. In 1927, these three organizations were merged and named the Brookings Institution in his honor. Today, the Brookings Institution is "devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly in economics, government, and foreign policy."



Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The founder of U.S. Steel who gave away about $350,000,000 during his lifetime (about nine-tenths of his fortune). Carnegie authored "The Gospel of Wealth" and founded over 300 public libraries. He also started the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh (1896), the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1902), the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910), and the Carnegie Corporation of New York (1911).

Cesar Chavez (1927-1993), Chavez served as organizer and leader of migrant American farm workers, largely Hispanic workers. He created and led the National Farm Workers

Association (NFWA), later this organization became the United Farm Workers of America (UFW).

Peter Cooper (1791-1883), Inventor, manufacturer, and benefactor of the science and arts, particularly the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City, which represented the first night school for the lower classes (and tuition was and is still free).

Paul Cuffe (1759-1817), Merchant, Quaker, community benefactor (one of the first African-American benefactors), and Black Nationalist. He opposed discrimination against his Blacks and his efforts led to Blacks receiving the right to vote in Massachusetts (1783). His faith was an important factor in using a substantial portion of his wealth to help others, including building a school (when the community failed to do so) and a new friends meeting house in Wesport, CT. The financial success he achieved by captaining (with an all black crew) his merchant ships convinced him that African-Americans were essential to redeeming Africa. Consequently, he associated with such groups as the American Colonization Society.

Dorothy Day (1897-1980), radical journalist, peace advocate, and founder of the Catholic Worker movement. In 1933, Day started the first Catholic Worker settlement house (St. Joseph’s House of Hospitality in New York City) and thirty other settlement houses (all run by a staff of volunteers) were subsequently started around the United States. These houses and the movement existed to provide food, clothes, and shelter to unemployed workers, destitute families, and alcoholics. Day advised adherents of the movement to practice "voluntary poverty," manual labor, a spirit of detachment from all things, and a sense of the primacy of the spiritual. Day also published The Catholic Worker and led passive resistance movements (which even resulted in some jail time) against World War II and preparations for nuclear war.



William E. Dodge (1805-1883) [done as a family entry], American merchant and cofounder of Phelps, Dodge & Company, which was one of the largest mining companies in the United States for more than a century. Considered an energetic and conservative man, Dodge engaged in civic activities throughout his life, primarily on behalf of religious and temperance societies. He served, for example, as a major leader and supporter of the National Temperance Society; American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; and the Presbyterian Church and its related charities.

Grace Hoadley Dodge (1856-1914), Daughter of William, She helped form organizations for the welfare of working women in the United States and donated about $1,500,000 and years of leadership to her philanthropies. In 1880, she helped create manual and domestic training and industrial arts in the public schools and funded the Teachers College at Columbia University. Dodge helped organize and served as the President of the Association of Working Girls' Societies. She also served as Board President of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of the United States. She also organized the New York and National Travelers' Aid Society in 1907--a group devoted to the protection of migrant and immigrant women.

Katharine Drexel, Blessed (1858-1955), American founder of the Blessed Sacrament Sisters for Indians and Colored People (now Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament), a congregation of missionary nuns dedicated to the welfare of American Indians and blacks. She inherited a vast fortune and initially financed Christian Indian mission schools. In 1889, she entered the novitiate of the Sisters of Mercy. Mother Drexel also began a vast building campaign, founding numerous schools such as St. Catherine's Boarding School for Pueblo Indians, Santa Fe, New Mexico and Xavier University in New Orleans, Louisiana. At the time of her death, she had used more than $12,000,000 of her inheritance for her charitable and apostolic missions. She was beatified in 1988.

George Eastman (1854-1932), An American manufacturer who gained great wealth and fame through his introduction of the first Kodak camera (which helped to promote large-scale amateur photography). Eastman’s important and innovative contributions to the field of philanthropy are, however, often overlooked. Unlike fellow contemporary donors, such as Andrew Carnegie and John Rockefeller, Eastman focused on local philanthropy: devoting almost all of his gifts to his hometown of Rochester, New York. Eastman almost individually transformed Rochester into one of the most progressive, culturally diverse, and technological advanced municipalities in the nation. Eastman believed that donors should seriously consider limiting the number of causes they support, working closely with recipients to ensure that funds are properly used. Eastman also argued that giving to local charities, in which one takes a personal interest, is not only satisfying but can do just as much good as giving to national causes. Eastman also served as the galvanizing force behind the creation of the first community chest (a precursor to the today’s United Ways). Eastman convinced the citizens of Rochester to convert its war chest campaigns into community chest campaigns in 1919 and Rochester’s first charitable federated campaign raised $1,251,00.

Henry Ford (1863-1947), The Ford Motor Company entrepreneur, peace activist, and founder of Greenfield Village (a collection of nearly 100 historic buildings relocated or reconstructed on 200 acres) and the adjoining Henry Ford Museum (a collection of Americana) in 1933. He also founded and led the Ford Foundation (1936), which (during his lifetime) primarily focused on Michigan charitable activities.

James Forten (1766-1842) After making his fortune in the shipping business (particularly, an invention that improved the handling of sails), he concentrated on abolitionist activities in Philadelphia. In 1797, he organized the city’s first black Masonic Lodge. During the War of 1812, he helped mobilize 2500 blacks to build fortifications around Philadelphia. In 1817, he organized a protest of the American Colonization Society, and in 1830 helped organize the first national black convention, focused on defeating colonization. Forten was also one of the largest supporters of William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator.



Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), Educational reformer and founder of the first American school for the deaf. Gallaudet learned the sign method of communication in Europe. On his return to the United States in 1816, he established the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes at Hartford (Connecticut). For over 50 years, this school was the main training center for instructors of the deaf. After retiring from the school in 1830, Gallaudet wrote textbooks for deaf children and crusaded for the rights of the deaf (including getting government funded deaf school established in many states).

Dr. Hector P. Garcia (1914-1996), A San Antonio-based physician, Dr. Hector Garcia was an activist for the Mexican-American community throughout his life. Garcia organized the American G.I. Forum (1948) initially to improve veteran benefits and enhance medical attention but it soon expanded to address educational and vocational training, housing, public education, poll taxation, voter registration, hospitalization and employment. The G. I. Forum captured national attention in 1949 when a Three Rivers funeral home would not allow the use of a chapel to bury Army private Felix Longoria, a veteran killed during World War II. The director of the funeral home said Longoria could be buried in the town's segregated ``Mexican'' cemetery, but that the chapel could not be used because the local ``whites would not like it,'' according to newspaper accounts at the time. Garcia led a national campaign that resulted in a reversal of that policy. Indeed, Longoria eventually was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. The Three Rivers incident shocked Garcia, and from then on, he and the American GI Forum focused on combating discrimination, segregation and exploitation of Mexican-Americans. GI Forum attorneys went to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 to argue the case of Pete Hernandez, a Jackson County farm worker convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. The GI Forum contended that Hernandez had not received a fair trial because Hispanics were systematically excluded from the jury. The Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, found unanimously for Hernandez. Today, the American G. I. Forum has nearly 160,000 members in 502 chapters in 24 states. Garcia remained a lifelong civil right activist and campaigned, for example, against a bill in the Legislature to make English the official language of Texas in the 1980s.

Mary Elizabeth Garrett (1854-1915) (Garrett and Thomas done as one entry), One of the founders, in 1885, of Bryn Mawr School for Girls. She was president of the board, and provided financial support, including a building valued at $300,000. In 1892, Garrett gave over $300,000 to Johns Hopkins University (for the creation of a medical school) on the condition that women be admitted on the same terms as men and the institution would only be a graduate school. She also gave significant amounts of money to Bryn Mawr College, provisioned on the promotion of her friend M. Cary Thomas to the presidency. She also contributed her time, money and prestige to the Women’s Suffrage movement, endowing the Susan B. Anthony medal and other activities.

Martha Carey Thomas, (1857-1935), Educator and feminist. In 1889, Mary Garrett, Thomas, and other friends secured the admission of women into the Johns Hopkins University Medical School by making a condition a large gift to its endowment. Thomas was also chosen as the second president of Bryn Mawr in 1894. In 1906, she became the first president of the National College Women’s Equal Suffrage League, leading her into work for the National American Women Suffrage Association, as a bridge between the core moderate faction and the radical faction, whose members included Jane Addams. In 1921, she began the Summer School for Women in Industry at Bryn Mawr, where working girls from the city were brought to the suburbs and given "cultural uplift" for eight weeks.

Stephen Girard (1750-1831), A colonial America and early republic entrepreneur who may have made the most famous bequest in American history. He also provided economic support for continuation of United States military campaigns during the War of 1812. Toward the end of the War of 1812 (when U.S. credit was at its lowest point), Girard subscribed 95 percent of the government war loan, which enabled the United States to carry on the war. Girard bequeathed nearly his entire fortune ($7,000,000) to social welfare institutions, including an endowment for a Philadelphia college for male orphans, founded as the Stephen Girard College in 1833. The Girard Will case (1844), heard before the United States Supreme Court, established the legal rights for charitable bequests.

Frederick H. Goff (1858-1933), Goff developed the idea of a community foundation and founded the first community foundation, Cleveland Foundation. Goff stated that he wanted to make "an agency for making philanthropy more effective and for cutting off as much as is harmful of the dead past from the living present and the unborn future." Goff determined that a community foundation would have two "special purposes": 1) "to accumulate and manage permanent charitable endowments" and 2) to create funds whose allocation decisions would be determined by a committee of community citizens.

Roberto Crispulo Goizueta (1931-1997), CEO of Coca Cola, richest Hispanic in America (at his death), and benefactor of numerous philanthropic institutions in Atlanta, including endowment gifts to Emory University (which in 1994 renamed its business school in his honor) and a $38 million gift to an unnamed Atlanta area foundation. In a Loyola University commencement speech, Goizueta, who urged corporate America to play a more benevolent role in society, told students that businesses had an obligation to give something back to the communities that support them. He also founded the Goizueta Foundation.

Pierre Frist Goodrich (1894-1973), A successful lawyer who, in 1960, established the Liberty Fund, for encouraging the study of his concept of an ideal society: a community composed of free and responsible persons. Goodrich’s concept was based on his belief that the ideal of such a society was threatened by the use of governmental powers – which thwarted liberty and corrupted both the wielder and the object of power. In an effort to enhance the mission of the Liberty Fund, he required all fund trustees to read and discuss classic texts at board meetings.

Rebecca Gratz (1781-1869), Founder and Leader of numerous charitable organizations. Beginning with the organization of the Female Association for the Relief of Women and Children in Reduced Circumstances, she also founded the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, and the Jewish Foster Home and Asylum. She also contributed her time to the Fuel Society and the Sewing Society of Philadelphia. She founded a Jewish Sunday School in 1838. In 1854, the school expanded into the Hebrew Educational Society and later became the Hebrew Sunday School Society (1858). Gratz called the founding and expansion of this coeducational institution as the "crowning happiness" of her life.

Robert K. Greenleaf (1904-1990), spent his first career in management research, development and education at AT&T. After retirement, he began a second career teaching and consulting at institutions ranging from Harvard Business School to the Ford Foundation to scores of churches and not-for-profit institutions. During the tumultuous 1960s, Greenleaf tried to understand why so many young people were in rebellion against America's institutions, especially universities. He concluded that the fault lay with the institutions: ‘they were not doing a good job of serving, therefore, they were doing a poor job of leading.’ In 1970, Greenleaf wrote an influential essay entitled "The Servant as Leader." In it, Greenleaf described some of the characteristics and activities of servant-leaders, providing examples, which show that individual efforts, inspired by vision and a servant ethic, can make a substantial difference in the quality of society. Greenleaf believed that true leaders are chosen by their superior service to others. He discussed the skills necessary to be a servant-leader; the importance of awareness, foresight and listening; and the contrasts between coercive, manipulative, and persuasive power. During the rest of his life, Greenleaf promoted the ideas of servant-leadership, and subsequently service learning in universities. The Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership, a non-profit organization that advocates the benefits of servant-leadership, continues Greenleaf's work.

Daniel Guggenhiem (1856-1930), Solomon Guggenhiem (1861-1949), Simon Guggenhiem (1867-1941), and Peggy Guggenhiem (1898-1979), [done as one family entry]. Daniel (one of the Guggenheim’s seven sons), after taking over his father’s (Meyer) business in coal smelting, developed worldwide mining interests that--when merged with the American Smelting and Refining Company in 1901--dominated the industry for the next three decades and laid the foundation for the present U.S. mining industry. His most notable philanthropies were the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation and the Daniel Guggenheim Foundation for the Promotion of Aeronautics. In 1925, Simon Guggenheim (the sixth son of Meyer Guggenheim) established the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation (in memory of his son) to award fellowships to aid artists and scholars studying abroad. Solomon Guggenheim, the fourth son of Meyer Guggenheim, founded in 1937 the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation for the advancement of art, which now operates the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and Guggenheim Museum SoHo in New York City and directs the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain. Peggy Guggenhiem was an American art collector who was an important patron of the Abstract Expressionist school of artists in New York City. In 1942, she opened another art gallery, Art of This Century, in New York City, and many of the artists she supported received their first one-man shows there. She sponsored such well-known artists such as Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, and Hans Hofmann. After World War II, Peggy moved to Venice, where she settled in an 18th-century palazzo on the Grand Canal. In Venice, she displayed part of her art collection to the public, and she later donated (1979) the collection to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, which owns the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. The collection, which contains masterpieces of modern painting and is still on display in Venice, is known as the Guggenheim Collection. Peggy Guggenheim's memoirs--Out of This Century (1946) and Confessions of an Art Addict (1960)--were published in a combined edition under the latter title in 1980.

Paul Harris (1868-1947) The founder of Rotary Clubs International (1905) and past president of that organization. Throughout his life, Harris traveled extensively, promoting the spread of Rotary Clubs in the United States and internationally. He also wrote several books about the early days of Rotary and his role in the organization.

Henry Lee Higginson (1834-?), A banker, symphony founder, and major donor to numerous other philanthropic enterprises. He gave "Soldier’s Field" (1891) to Harvard University in honor of those friends who died in the Civil War and a donation to build the Harvard Union in 1899. His most significant contribution was, however, the founding of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, which became the first permanent symphony of its kind in the United States and a leading example for other communities across the country.

Ima Hogg (1882-1975), Texas millionaire, philanthropic benefactor, and patron of the arts and historic preservation (among others). She served as the first vice president of the Houston Symphony Society and became its president in 1917. In 1929, she founded the Houston Child Guidance Center, an agency to provide therapy and counseling for disturbed children and their families. In 1940, she established the Hogg Foundation for Mental Hygiene, which later became the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health at the University of Texas. Since the 1920s, Hogg had been studying and collecting early American art and antiques and she presented her collection (recognized as one of the finest of its kind) and Bayou Bend (the River Oaks mansion she and her brothers had built in 1927) to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston in 1966. In the 1950s, Hogg also restored the Hogg family home at Varner Plantation near West Columbia, and presented it (1958) to the state of Texas as the Varner-Hogg Plantation State Historical Park. In the 1960s, she restored the Winedale Inn. Today, the Winedale Historical Center now serves as a center for the study of Texas history. Her will’s major benefactor was the Ima Hogg Foundation, a charitable nonprofit she established in 1964.

Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), United States President and humanitarian. At the outbreak of World War I (1914), he headed the Allied relief operations and later chaired the Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB). Through the four years of the war, Hoover and his other American volunteers in CRB fed eleven million people and collected more than 1 billion dollars. With the United States’ entry into the war, Hoover served as the national food administrator (to stimulate production and conserve supplies). This operation spread over 30 European countries and distributed $100,000,000 worth of aid. When the American Relief Administration officially ended on June 30, 1919, Hoover believed that many children would still suffer, so he founded the European Children's Fund (supported by American donations), which represents the origin of CARE packs. Later, he headed the Mississippi flood-relief activities (1927) and also participated in post-World War II famine-relief work in Europe (founding and leading the Polish Relief Commission). Hoover also pushed for a strong charitable sector in American society (indeed he believed the charitable sector represented the American safety net in hard times) and served as Board Chairman of Boys' Clubs of America (giving over 25 years of service to that organization).

Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876) (Howe and Sanborne will be done as one entry), Prominent crusader for and educator of the deaf, blind, mentally retarded, and insane (promoting education that created self-sufficiency). He founded, among others, the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind. He was also a fervent abolitionist (even provided considerable financial assistance to John Brown) and an appointee to the United States Sanitation Commission. Howe persuaded the Governor of Massachusetts to form the first state board of charities in 1864 (Massachusetts Board of State Charities, Chairman (1865-1874). He further managed relief funds and supplies and even established a school for Crete refugees during the Crete revolt from Turkish rule (1866-67).

Franklin Benjamin Sanborne (1831-1917), American journalist, biographer, charity worker and longtime partner of Samuel Gridley Howe. He became active in the Abolitionist cause, becoming John Brown's New England agent as well as the Secretary of the Massachusetts Free Soil Association. He tried to dissuade Brown from attempting the raid on Harpers Ferry, but, nevertheless, aided the firebrand with funds. In 1863, Sanborne was appointed the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of State Charities (later Chairman 1874-1876) and later served as the State Inspector of Charities (1879-1888). He was also the founder of the American Social Science Association, the National Prison Association, and National Conference of Charities and Correction.

Helen Maria Fiske Hunt Jackson (1830-1885), Author and Native American rights activist. After settling in the West, Jackson became aware of the plight of numerous Native Americans (and even heard Ponca Chief Standing Bear lecture on the wrongs committed to his people while visiting Boston in 1879). From these experiences, she devoted herself to a lifetime crusade for Native Americans. In 1881, she published A Century of Dishonor, a chronicle of all the wrongs committed against Native Americans by the United States government. Although the book went through many printings in her lifetime, Jackson did not believe her first book was an adequate message and in 1884 published Ramona (a fictional account based on historical facts).

King Kamehameha I (1753-1819) [done as one family entry], A native Hawaiian King who established the King’s Trust through which the king's assets were used for the benefit of the people. These funds later became known as the King’s and Queen’s Trust. Queen Liliokalani, who was in power at the time that the US acquired Hawaii, was also a significant historical figure in this philanthropic tradition.

Bernice Pauahi Bishop, (1831-1884) A member of the Hawaiian Royal family who, at her death, established the Kamehameha Schools (one for boys, one for girls) to ensure the education of native Hawaiians. The schools continue to operate today and still require at least half-native Hawaiian ancestry for admission. She married an American who would establish the first bank on the island, and with their marital wealth and the great amount of land she inherited before her own death (as a result of her connection to the royal family), she became the most notable Hawaiian philanthropist. The aforementioned wealth also created the Bishop’s Trust. Her husband directed this trust after her death.

Robert Keayne (d. 1656), A New England merchant who made numerous charitable bequests to the town of Boston, Massachusetts. The philanthropic priorities in his will, donating money for a Town Meeting Hall (which he asked include a "Market Place, Court Room…Granary, and an Armory), demonstrate the early American colonialists’ proclivity to direct their charitable donations to public institutions and not needy or poor individuals.

Florence Kelley (1859-1932), A Social reformer whose voluntary action and work with voluntary associations greatly contributed to the development of state and federal labor and social welfare legislation. In 1891, she joined the residents of Chicago's Hull House. Her investigative work there contributed to an Illinois act (1893) that regulated tenement sweatshops, hours of work for women, and child labor. That year, she also became the first chief factory inspector of Illinois. In 1899, Kelley became secretary of the National Consumer's League, which promoted the use of consumer boycotts to support proper working conditions. She traveled across the United States publicizing the league and organizing state affiliates. Her work has been credited with contributing to the passage of minimum wage, child labor, and working hours laws in the United States. Kelley, a suffragist, was also a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909) and an organizer of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (1919).

Will Keith (W.K.) Kellogg (1860-1951), Child activist and enormous supporter of charitable causes. He became convinced that he could accomplish the most good by helping young people. In 1925, he established the Fellowship Corporation and donated nearly $3 million to hometown causes, such as the Ann J. Kellogg School for handicapped children, a civic auditorium, a junior high school, and a youth recreation center. In 1930, he founded the W.K. Kellogg Child Welfare Foundation (later renamed the W.K. Kellogg Foundation) and spent the rest of his life working in his foundation.

Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), The civil rights activist who espoused the philosophy of nonviolent voluntary action. In 1954, King started his first ministry at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Selma, Alabama. King was becoming known for his preaching when, in December of 1955, Rosa Parks, was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white passenger. The consequence of her action was a total boycott of the city’s bus system by the black community. A group of ministers created the Montgomery Improvement Association, and asked King (as its president) to lead the protests. King quickly became a prominent civil rights figure due to his eloquence and personal courage in the face of attacks. In 1957, a group of ministers from all over the South met in Atlanta and formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and King was elected its president. His activities with the SCLC and others organizations won him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. King saw the award as affirmation of the power of nonviolent protest. King was assassinated in 1968 while supporting a sanitation worker’s strike in Memphis, Tennessee.

Sebastian Spering Kresge (1867-1966), The founder of a dime-store chain, which he turned into a corporate empire. Much of his corporate success rested on strict morality and progressive personnel policies. Before such business practices were common, Kresge provided employees with sick leave, paid holidays, profit-sharing bonuses, and retirement pensions. His strict morality led him to support the YMCA and the Anti-Saloon League and to organize the National Vigilance Committee for Prohibition Enforcement. Believing that with great wealth came great responsibility, Kresge created the Kresge Foundation in 1924 "to help human progress." Treasurer of the foundation until his death, he eventually gave it most of his personal fortune

Eli Lilly (1885-1977), During the last three decades of his life, Lilly donated millions of dollars both personally and through his foundation, the Lilly Endowment. Some of the organizations benefiting from Lilly's generosity included: Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Children's Museum of Indianapolis, Butler University, Earlham College, Wabash College and the Episcopal church.

Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927), founder of the Girl Scouts of America. During travels to England, she met General Sir Robert Baden-Powell (founder of the Boy Scouts). Her interest in the Girl Guides--the British female counterpart of the Boy Scouts--led her to organize the first Girl Guides in the United States in 1912. The movement grew rapidly and Low worked to establish a national organization. In 1915, that goal came to fruition when she founded the Girl Scouts of America. As president of the Scouts, Low traveled throughout the United States, donating and soliciting funds and organizing troops. By the time of her death in 1927, there were over 140,000 Girl Scouts in the United States.

Josephine Shaw Lowell (1843-1905), American charity worker and social reformer, she was an advocate of the doctrine that charity should not merely relieve suffering but should also rehabilitate the recipient. Lowell's involvement in charity concerns began after the American Civil War, when she became active in the National Freedmen's Relief Association of New York. In 1876, she became the first woman appointed a commissioner of the New York Charities Commission. In 1882, Lowell was a founder of the New York Charity Organization Society, a group devoted to the cooperation of charitable agencies. She guided the society for 25 years. During that time, she wrote a number of papers on the theoretical foundations of relief work, especially the influential Public Relief and Private Charity (1884). She was also a founder of the Consumers' League of New York (1890), the Woman's Municipal League (1894), and the Civil Service Reform Association of New York State (1895).

Mike Masaoka (1915-1991), A decorated World War II veteran and long time leader and activist for the Japanese American Citizens League and Japanese-American veterans associations. Though imprisoned behind the barbed wire of the Manzanar concentration camp, Masaoka’s lobbying efforts resulted in the all-Japanese 442nd Regimental Combat Team in which he and his three brothers, one of whom was killed, served with distinction. After the war, Masaoka devoted much of his life to fighting for Japanese-American rights, particularly lobbying the federal government for an official apology and financial restitution for the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Indeed, he achieved both goals in his lifetime.

Cotton Mather (1663-1728), An American Congregational minister and author who became one of the most famous New England Puritans. He devoted his life to praying, preaching, writing, and publishing while striving to "do good." His book, Bonifacius, or Essays to Do Good (1710), instructs others in humanitarian acts. He also established societies for community projects.

Osceola McCarty (1908-1999), As a young girl growing up in Mississippi, she dreamed of becoming a nurse because she wanted to help people. McCarty, however, had to drop out of school in the sixth grade to take care of her family. So, instead of becoming a nurse, she washed people's clothes all of her life. She lived a frugal life, saved what she could from the little money she made, and late in her life, donated $ 250,000 to the University of Southern Mississippi to provide scholarships for deserving students. Matching contributions from others that heard about McCarty's donation have increased the scholarship fund to $340,000. McCarty represents the millionaire next door phenomenon and a tradition within African-American philanthropy, people who (later in life) unassumingly donate their substantial life savings to charities.

Nettie Fowler McCormick, (1835-1923) Believing that "an the greatest wealth a man can have," she contributed frequently to more than forty schools and colleges throughout the country (nearly half of all the money she dispensed went to educational institutions and students). Reluctant to discuss her philanthropies, and often preferring to be anonymous, she viewed her wealth as a sacred trust with which she must one day make an accounting. She also screened and supervised her charities with great care.

Andrew Mellon (1855-1937) [done as a family entry], An American financier and Secretary of the United States Treasury (1921-32) who created the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. One of the nation's foremost art collectors, Mellon gave a collection valued at $25,000,000 to the United States government in 1937. Mellon also donated $15,000,000 to build the National Gallery of Art building (opened in 1941). He was also benefactor of The Mellon Institute of Industrial Research and the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.

Paul Mellon (1907-1999), A major patron of the fine arts, Mellon gave away more than $1 billion (more than 70 percent of his estimated net worth). His name appears on only two buildings, an arts center and a humanities building, both at his old boarding school, Choate Rosemary Hall, but his legacy includes $300 million in donated works of art, most of them paintings at Washington's National Gallery and at Yale University's Gallery of British Art, which he founded.

Jesse Edward Moorland (1863-1940), A clergyman who (starting in 1910) led numerous campaigns to establish new and community-owned Colored YMCAs and a major donor to African-American studies. He developed a highly sophisticated fundraising campaign for Colored YMCAs that "emphasized careful planning, organization of ‘blue ribbon’ committees, ‘monster rallies’ in large churches or stadiums, attracting the support of white political and voluntary organization leadership, and the ‘challenge’ to the Negro community to demonstrate its pride and sense of civic responsibility." On the last issue, these fundraising campaigns demonstrated the African-American communities’ long tradition of mutual aid giving (numerous small individual gifts which proved quite large in the aggregate). Believing that instruction and research on Africa and the African-American should be encouraged, he donated what was believed to be the largest collection of books on the American Negro (owned by an individual) to Howard University in 1914. He continued to contribute books and finances to what the Howard Trustees named the Moorland Foundation, "the first research library in an American university devoted exclusively to material on the Negro."

John Muir, (1838-1914) In 1889, he started a campaign to establish Yosemite National Park, and through conferences with President Theodore Roosevelt (in the early 1900s) helped designate over 148 million acres of new forest preserves and increased the number of national monuments and parks. In 1892, he founded the Sierra Club to promote the preservation of natural environments for the public good.

John M. Mulry (1855-1916), A prominent leader of the Society of St. Vincent De Paul and the Charity Organization Movement, which emphasized cooperation between Catholics and Protestants and their capacity to jointly achieve common goals. He also wrote a book entitled The Government in Charity, which warned that government funding of charity would dilute the religious and moral underpinnings of charitable efforts.

John M. Olin (1892-1982), Inventor, industrialist, conservationist and benefactor. He was a leader in conservation and wildlife preservation, playing a major role in the study of bobwhite quail management, the life cycle of the Atlantic salmon, and a crippling hip disease in the Labrador dog. Throughout his lifetime, Olin gave generously to educational institutions, charitable and community institutions, and prominent intellectual centers on public policy. In establishing the John M. Olin Foundation (1953), he gave practical expression to his belief that the principles of individual liberty and limited government have given this nation the greatest prosperity, the highest standard of living, and the greatest individual freedom ever known.

Osceola (1800?-1838), A Seminole chieftain who allowed runaway slaves to become full participating members in the Seminole nation of Florida.  When he was asked to return these slaves, he said he "could not return my children." He ultimately lost his life sustaining his nation’s underground railroad. 

Robert Dale Owen (1801-1877), American social reformer and politician. The son of the English reformer Robert Owen, Robert Dale Owen was steeped in his father's socialist philosophy while growing up at New Lanark in Scotland (his father’s model industrial community). In 1825 father and son immigrated to the United States to set up another self-sufficient socialist community at New Harmony, Ind. Robert Dale Owen edited the community's newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with the controversial reformer Fanny Wright. They traveled together to Wright's experimental community of Nashoba, Tenn., which was dedicated to the education and gradual emancipation of slaves, and from there went on to Europe. Upon returning to the United States, Owen and Wright revisited the New Harmony communities but settled in New York, where Owen edited the Free Enquirer. The paper opposed evangelical religion and advocated more liberal divorce laws, more equal distribution of wealth, and widespread industrial education. After a brief trip to England in 1832, Owen returned to New Harmony. He served three terms in the Indiana legislature (1836-1838). Owen was defeated for a third term in Congress and went back to Indiana, where he advocated property rights for married women and liberalization of divorce laws. In the 1850s, he became an outspoken proponent of emancipation and later headed a committee to investigate the condition of the freedmen and wrote a book on his findings, The Wrong of Slavery (1864). Owen spent his final years writing a novel (Beyond the Breakers, 1870) and his autobiography (Threading My Way, 1874).

David Packard (1912-1996) and Lucile Salter Packard (1914-1987), David was founder of the Hewlett-Packard Company and he and his wife Lucile established a family foundation in 1964, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. By the end of 1995, the Foundation had assets of $2.5 billion. Believing that the ocean represented humanity's last great unexplored frontier on this earth, the Packards provided $55 million to design and build the Monterey Bay Aquarium and founded the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to probe the depths of the ocean. To nurture the health and well being of children, David Packard donated $40 million to build the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital. After Lucile's death, David Packard established the Center for the Future of Children as part of the Packard Foundation. In 1995, David Packard pledged more than $77 million to construct the Science and Engineering Quadrangle at Stanford.

Bertha HonorJ Palmer, (1849-1919), Interested in social reform, Palmer was a prominent Chicago philanthropist who combined social reform with civic effort. She backed the Chicago Women’s Club, and established a new hurdle for membership: active participation in practical undertakings for the public welfare. She was also active at Hull House, a supporter of the Women’s Trade Union League, and was largely responsible for the organization of the Chicago Millnery Workers. In 1893, Palmer supported William Stead’s plan to clean up the city of Chicago and organize a citizen’s league to work for improved municipal conditions. In 1893, when the Chicago Civic Federation (forerunner of the National Civic Federation) was founded, Palmer was its first Vice President.

Frederick Douglas Patterson (1901-1988), American educator and prominent black leader, president of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tuskegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) in 1935-53, and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944). The United Negro College Fund, a fund-raising organization for historically black private colleges, administered programs and granted scholarships. By Patterson's death, the fund provided financial assistance for 42 member colleges, aiding some 45,000 students. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987.

George Peabody (1795-1869), Founder of the Peabody Education Fund to advance Southern education (particularly African-American education) and regional reconciliation after the Civil War. The fund represents a forerunner to twentieth century philanthropic foundations. He also founded the Peabody Institute (for cultural affairs) and sponsored inventions as well as polar expeditions.

J.N. Pew, Jr. (1886-1963), J. Howard Pew (1882-1971), Mary Ethel Pew (1884-1979) and Mabel Pew Myrin (1889-1979) [done as one family entry], The Pew Charitable Trusts are a group of seven individual charitable funds established between 1948 and 1979 by two sons and two daughters of Sun Oil Company founder Joseph N. Pew. The Pew Charitable Trusts came into existence in 1948 as The Pew Memorial Foundation. The four founders chose to honor their parents' memory by establishing a foundation that would contribute to the public's health and welfare and strengthen the communities in which they lived. In its early years, the foundation worked in almost complete anonymity. The founders' religious principles and family philosophy made them very sensitive to any appearance of self-promotion through their "good works." Consequently, they gave their gifts anonymously. In 1956, they came to realize that the proper disposition of their philanthropy required, in the long term, a staff to manage their assets as well as handle the administrative tasks of grantmaking. To that end, the board disbanded the foundation in 1957 and transferred its assets to a trust administered by The Glenmede Trust Company. The trust structure enabled the Pews to create individual funds with specific missions reflecting their personal charitable interests. The decade of the 1970s marked the end of the founders' era for The Pew Charitable Trusts but until each of their deaths, they continued their personal involvement and leadership of the Trusts' grantmaking. The 1970s also marked the transition away from anonymous grantmaking.

Reverend James Herman Robinson ( -1979), Pastor of the Church of the Master (formerly the Morningside Presbyterian Church) in New York City. He started Operation Crossroads Africa in 1957, but it actually grew out of his church operations during the early 1940’s. Robinson recruited white students (although he and his congregation was primarily African-American) from nearby Columbia, Barnard, and Union Theological Seminary to volunteer on neighborhood projects in Harlem, such as cleanup efforts, housing programs, etc. The program gradually expanded, and by the late 40’s, a wealthy white couple heard about Robinson’s efforts and donated several hundred acres of land in New Hampshire to his church. Robinson used the land to set up a summer camp for Harlem children and recruited mostly white students from places like Mt. Holyoke, Amherst, Columbia and Dartmouth to work there during the summers. He took this model and applied it to Africa, creating, in Operation Crossroads Africa, a precursor to the Peace Corps.

John D. Rockefeller Sr. (1839-1937), Standard Oil founder and major benefactor of philanthropic ventures. A devout Baptist, Rockefeller turned his attention increasingly (during the 1890s) to charities and benevolence. After 1897, he devoted himself completely to philanthropy. He founded the University of Chicago in 1892, and by the time of his death had given it more than $80 million. In association with his son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., he created major philanthropic institutions, including the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (renamed Rockefeller University) in New York City (1901); the General Education Board (1902); and the Rockefeller Foundation (1913). Rockefeller's benefactions, during his lifetime, totaled more than $500 million.

John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1874-1960), A Rockefeller heir who devoted most of his life to philanthropy. His philanthropic work included creating Rockefeller Center; helping establish the United Service Organizations (an agency which aided United States military personnel and their dependants), donating land for the United Nations headquarters; restoring Colonial Williamsburg, Va.; and constructing of low-rent housing in poor sections of New York City.

Abby Greene Aldrich Rockefeller (1874-1948) An active participant in philanthropies, she began her activities with the YWCA and her church, where she founded the Good Fellowship Council, a neighborhood Association which included representatives of the many immigrant and minority groups from New York City’s East Side. As her children grew, she devoted time to the Girl Scouts, the American Red Cross, and the new Riverside Church. When her husband became active in the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg, she became interested in Colonial Folk Culture, eventually creating the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Collection at Colonial Williamsburg. With four sons fighting in World War II, she devoted much of her time to the USO and planned centers for veteran rehabilitation and employment during and after the war. Her most important contribution, by far, is the founding, with Lizzie Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, of the Museum of Modern Art in 1929. She served on the board of trustees, donated money and over 2000 works of art to the museum in her lifetime. She also set up an unrestricted purchase fund, a unique creation, so as not to impose her taste (or anyone else’s) on the collection.

John D. Rockefeller III (1906-1978), Inherited the Rockefeller legacy and devoted his life to philanthropy, including the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City, the India International Center in New Delhi, the International House of Japan, and the Asia Society as well as initiatives to control world population and fight hunger.

Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932), Former President of Sears, Roebuck and Company and benefactor who opposed the idea of perpetual endowments and frequently offered large philanthropic gifts on condition that they be matched by other donations. In 1917, he established the Julius Rosenwald Fund (which was supposed to expend all its resources within 25 years after his death--liquidated in 1948), chief purpose of which was the improvement of education for blacks. Augmented by local taxes and private gifts, the fund paid for the construction of more than 5,000 schools in 15 southern states. In Chicago, he established the Museum of Science and Industry (1929), contributed heavily to the University of Chicago, and founded dental infirmaries in the public schools.

Benjamin Rush (17[45-46]-1813), American physician and political leader, a member of the Continental Congress, signer of the Declaration of Independence, as well as colonial America and early American republic humanitarian reformer, including the Philadelphia Dispensary (the first free medical clinic in the United States). Early in his career, he joined the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital (1783) created to aid the sick and the poor and remained on the staff of this private hospital for the rest of his life. In psychiatry, Rush's contributions were quite important. For many years, he labored among the insane patients at the Pennsylvania Hospital. He advocated humane treatment for the insane; indeed, he held that insanity often proceeded from physical causes, an idea that was a long step forward from the old notion that lunatics were possessed by devils. His Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind, published in 1812, was the first, and for many years, the only American treatise on psychiatry. Rush was also deeply bothered by what he perceived as moral weaknesses among the poor, and he supported reforms designed to aid the so called "the worthy poor." Even though he supported and created health organizations (such as hospitals) which supported the poor, Rush also went so far as to write an article in the Independent Gazetteer telling his fellow Philadelphians they should not "exhaust" their benevolence on medical institutions, but rather fund education for the poor because "their morals are of more consequence to society than their health or lives." He also fought against the slave trade and promoted the abolition of slavery as well as aid for free African-Americans. Although he was a slave owner until 1794, he joined the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in 1787, and served as president of the National Conference of Abolition Societies in 1795. Rush also attacked drinking, tobacco, and capital punishment. He also sought to turn prisons into institutions of reform and repentance as well as create free public schools.

Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage (1828-1918), Founder of the Russell Sage Foundation and foundation movement as well as promoter of the social scientific approach to ameliorating the welfare of poor Americans. She also founded the Emma Willard School and the Russell Sage College, both in Troy, New York.

Margaret Louise Higgins Sanger (1879-1966) Believing that control over childbearing is the essential factor in the emancipation of women from domination by men, Sanger spent her life advocating and distributing birth control information to women all over the world. To get around laws prohibiting distribution of information on birth control per se, Sanger convinced doctors that this was a health issue and would also prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In 1952 she helped found the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Bombay, India. In the 1950s she obtained funding for research to develop the birth-control pill. Although Sanger’s role as a pioneer in this field is undisputed, she also advocated eugenicist views and suggested that birth control helped to assure survival of the white race.

Leland (1824-1893) and Jane (Lathrop) Stanford ( - ), Leland was a Governor (1861-1863) and United States Senator (1885-1891) from California and one of the builders of the first United States transcontinental railroad. Stanford invested heavily in the plan to build a transcontinental railroad, and, when the Central Pacific Railroad was organized in 1861, he became its president (1861-93). He was instrumental in the success of the Central Pacific, which was built eastward to join with the Union Pacific at Promontory, Utah, in 1869. Leland and his wife, Jane, founded Stanford University in 1885. The university was opened in 1891 (with 559 students) and dedicated to their deceased only child, Leland, Jr. The university campus consists largely of Stanford's former Palo Alto farm. The buildings, conceived by Frederick Law Olmsted, are of soft buff sandstone and in a style similar to the old California mission architecture.

Saint Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton (1774-1821), The first native-born American to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church, she was also the founder of the Sisters of Charity (the first American religious society). After she opened (1809) an elementary school in Baltimore, several young women became entrusted to her care. Together, they took simple vows but not until 1812--after the community moved to Emmitsburg (PA)-- were their constitution and rules formally adopted. The Sisters of Charity officially began in 1813 and Seton became the first mother superior and remained legal guardian of her children. Although her school was not the first Catholic elementary school, Seton is known as the mother of the parochial-school system in the United States. At her death, Elizabeth's order had branched into 20 communities.

Olivia Egleston Phelps (1847-1927) and Caroline Phelps Stokes (1854-1909) [done as one entry], Two wealthy sisters who came from a strong philanthropy-focused family and gave substantial amounts to numerous charitable causes (perhaps best know for their work supporting African-Americans and American Indians as well as their interest in vocational education). The sister gave substantial amounts to the New York Botanical Gardens, New York Zoological Society, an open pulpit for the Cathedral of St. John, a chapel for Berea College (KY), and model tenement houses (among many others). After Caroline’s death, Caroline gave large bequests to Tuskegee Institute but also donated a large amount of her estate to create the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Olivia became a major donor and leader of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, which focused on African-American education and improving race relations.

Isidor Straus (1845-1912), Merchant and Philanthropist. One of the Straus brothers who helped lead Macy’s department stores to prominence, Straus was also active in his community. He served on the World’s Fair commission, as a trustee of the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids and a board member of the Birkbeck Company, which gave low-interest loans. He founded the American Jewish Committee, contributed to the Jewish Theological Seminary, and served as President of the Educational Alliance to Americanize Jewish Immigrants from 1893 to 1912.

Lina Gutherz Straus (1854-1930), Active in the same causes as her husband, Nathan, she championed the cause of poor and workingwomen in the city’s slums. After the city of New York took over the milk distribution program in 1920, she became deeply involved in health care reforms in Palestine. She helped establish soup kitchens, brought American-trained nurses to the area to care for the sick, and planned and built Health Centers in Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv.

Nathan Straus (1848-1931), scientist and philanthropist. After developing a process to pasteurize milk, Straus convinced New York City to put roofs on city piers and turn them into recreation areas for mothers and children in the city’s congested areas, and Straus distributed milk to the women and children there. During the coal workers strike of 1892-93, Straus set up distribution stations all over the city where it was sold cheaply or given away to the poorest residents. In 1916 he sold his yacht and gave the profits for the relief of war orphans. Straus was also an ardent Zionist and devoted much time and money to the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. He visited Palestine many times and contributed to many improvements there as well.

Roger Williams (1891-1957) Straus In 1928 helped found the National Conference of Christians and Jews (later the World Council of Christians and Jews) and served as its Jewish cochairman for many years.

Arthur Tappan (1786-1865) and Lewis Tappan (1788-1873) [done as one entry], Activists and benefactors of abolitionism and manual-training college movements as well as institutions such as Oberlin College and Kenyon College. Early and consistently, the Tappans used their wealth to support missionary societies, colleges, and theological seminaries. They helped found several Abolitionist journals, and Arthur was the founder and first president (1833-40) of the American Anti-Slavery Society. They also created the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and supported the Underground Railroad.

Tecumseh (1763-1813), A Shawnee warrior and tribal leader who was one of the most influential leaders of his time as well as a paradigm of American Indiana philanthropic spirit. He formulated his lifelong philosophy that the land belonged to all the Indians in common and therefore no one tribe or group had the right to sell it. His brother Lalawenthika initiated a religious revival know as the Indian Movement, which pushed for a return to traditional Indian values and a general rejection of white culture. Tecumseh joined his brother and became a, if not the, primary leader of the movement as he pushed two goals of his own: common ownership of all tribal lands and a political confederacy to unite tribes under his leadership. When Tecumseh died, so did the Indian movement. Still, contemporary accounts of Tecumseh indicate that he also stood out because of his special concerns for others (freely sharing game and other provisions with the less fortunate) and his steadfast insistence on the humane treatment of prisoners of war.

Mary Eliza Church Terrell (1863-1954), An American social activist who was cofounder and first president of the National Association of Colored Women. She was an early civil-rights advocate, an educator, an author, and a lecturer on woman suffrage and black rights. Terrell was an active member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association--addressing in particular--the concerns of black women. In 1896, she became the first president of the newly formed National Association of Colored Women, an organization, which under her leadership worked to achieve educational and social reform and an end to discriminatory practices. An articulate spokeswoman, adept political organizer, and prolific writer, Terrell addressed a wide range of social issues in her long career, including the Jim Crow Law, lynching, and the convict lease system. Her last act, as an activist, was to lead a successful three-year struggle against segregation in public eating places and hotels in the nation's capital.

Sojourner Truth (1799-1883), An African-American evangelist and reformer (as well as former slave) who applied her religious fervor to the abolitionist and women's rights movements. In New York City, she became associated with a zealous religious missionary organization, the Retrenchment Society. In 1843, she left New York City and sang, preached, and debated at camp meetings, in churches, and on village streets (exhorting her listeners to accept the biblical message of God's goodness). In the same year, she was introduced to abolitionism and thereafter spoke on behalf of the movement throughout the state. In 1850, she traveled throughout the Midwest, where her reputation for personal magnetism preceded her, and drew heavy crowds. Encountering the women's rights movement in the early 1850s, she continued to appear at suffrage gatherings during the rest of her life. At the beginning of the American Civil War, she gathered supplies for black volunteer regiments and went to Washington, D.C. (1864), where she helped integrate streetcars. The same year, she accepted an appointment with the National Freedmen's Relief Association counseling former slaves, particularly in matters of resettlement.

Joseph Tuckerman (1778-1840) A minister by training, Tuckerman left the pulpit in 1826 to "minister to Boston’s poor" under the auspices of the American Unitarian Association. In this position, he functioned essentially as a social worker: finding jobs for the unemployed and counseling alcoholics. He was also an advocate of public education. In 1833, he helped to found the Boston Asylum and Farm School (designed to help delinquent boys). He also developed the movement for savings banks, life insurance, and benefit societies among the poor, tried to repeal the poor laws, and voiced his opposition to the public assistance of charities. In social welfare circles, he is often called "the father of American Social Work".

Madame C. J. Walker (1867-1919), A Businesswoman and philanthropist generally acknowledged as one of the first black female millionaires in the United States. Generous with her money, she included--in her extensive philanthropies--educational scholarships, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, homes for the aged, Tuskegee Institute, Black YMCAs, and the National Conference on Lynching. She bequeathed her estate to various charitable and educational institutions.

Lilian Wald (1867-1940), Public health nurse, settlement house leader, and social reformer. Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement (1895) and Visiting Nurse Service (which is responsible for starting the first independent public health nursing service). She also helped found the National Child Labor Committee. Wald led the Henry Street Settlement until 1933 and served as the first President of the National Organization for Public Health. During World War I, she headed the Council of National Defense’s committee on home nursing and chaired the Nurses’ Emergency Council.

An Wang (1920-1990) Creator of the magnetic memory core for computers (which allows for data storage without mechanical motion), founder of Wang Laboratories. Driven by his Confucian upbringing and business principles, Wang gave generously, to various organizations: $4 million to fix the roof of the Boston Performing Arts Center, more than $4 million to Harvard University, $1 million to Wellesley College, $6 million to create the Wang Institute of Graduate Studies for software engineers and Chinese scholars. He also built factories in depressed areas of Boston and Lowell, Massachusetts, creating thousands of jobs. Michael Dukakis, while governor of Massachusetts, said of Wang, "I don’t know how many countless thousands of people owe a debt of gratitude for what he did."

Booker T. Washington (1856?-1915), educator and reformer, first president and principal developer of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), and one of the most influential spokesman for black Americans between 1895 and 1915. In 1881, Washington was selected to head a newly established normal school for blacks at Tuskegee, an institution with two small, converted buildings, no equipment, and very little money. Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute became a monument to his life's work. At his death 34 years later, it had more than 100 well-equipped buildings, some 1,500 students, a faculty of nearly 200 teaching 38 trades and professions, and an endowment of approximately $2,000,000. Washington--influenced in his own education—advocated the need for practical education for African Americans. Believing that African Americans were inferior in term of the cultural, social, and economic heritage necessary to compete with Whites, and therefore would have to prove themselves capable citizens before Whites would accept them; Washington emphasized industrial and agricultural education over the liberal arts. Washington also worked behind-the-scenes to support many other organizations, and was an active opponent of segregation, worked to prevent blanket disenfranchisement, and spoke openly against lynching.


Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931), An African-American journalist who led an antilynching crusade in the United States during the 1890s. In 1892, she became a part owner of the Memphis Free Speech. Later that same year---after she denounced lynching in her editorials, the newspaper's office was mobbed and destroyed by local whites. Undaunted, Wells began a crusade to investigate the lynching of blacks in the American South. She argued that lynching stemmed not from the defense of white womanhood but from whites' fear of economic competition from blacks. She subsequently traveled throughout the United States and England, lecturing and founding antilynching societies and black women's clubs. In 1910, Wells-Barnett was a founder of the Chicago Negro Fellowship League, which aided newly arrived migrants from the South. She was also a women's rights advocate, founding what may have been the first black woman suffrage group, Chicago's Alpha Suffrage Club.

Candace Thurber Wheeler, (1827-1923), In 1877, she established the Society of Decorative Arts of New York City to aid "decayed gentlewomen...women of education and refinement" who lacked a means of support. She left the society the next year to found the Women’s Exchange, which marketed articles of all kinds (produced by women) and the profits aided widows. In 1893 she was named director of the exhibit of women’s work and applied arts at the Chicago World’s Exposition.

Francis Elizabeth Carolyn Willard (1839-1898), A temperance and women’s rights activist as well as the founder and longtime President (1879-1898) of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Under her leadership, she was able to get the WCTU to come out for women’s suffrage long before any other national women’s association did. Willard was also involved in numerous women’s benevolent societies and even served as President of the Evanston College for Ladies before her temperance work.

John Winthrop (1588-1649), The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Puritan minister, social activist, and the chief figure among the Puritan founders of New England. He is the author of the famous sermon, "A Model of Christian Charity."