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Anthropology A103
Human Origins and Prehistory
Spring 2016, Dr. Mullins

The exam will be in class WEDNESDAY MARCH 30.   As always, remember that test material can include anything from the Powerpoints or in the assigned readings but will focus on the material included here.  Please be on time for the exam period, and turn off all cell phones and beepers during the exam.  We will have a study session in class the preceding class, so bring your study guide and answers to class with you that day.  Exam material begins on Powerpoint 4, slide 87.

1. What are the two contending theories on the relationship between Homo erectus and subsequent Homo sapiens sapiens?

2. How old is the recently identified hominid Sahelanthropus tchadensis?  Where was this hominid recovered?  

3.  How early did Homo erectus reach Java?  How did they reach this island?

4. What sites contain evidence for cannibalism among neandertals?  How widespread does cannibalism seem to have been?

5. Some archaeologists believe that clothing did not appear until quite recently.  What evidence suggests this relatively late appearance of clothing, and about when does this evidence suggest clothing appeared?

6. Who is Homo sapiens neandertalensis? Is neandertal a different species than Homo sapiens sapiens?  When and where did they live? What was the environment like in this region?  What is their stone tool technology called? Describe these tools.  What does archaeological evidence suggest about the extent of neandertal hunting? How about campsites? What evidence for such practices has been identified for subsequent Homo sapiens (e.g., the European variant of Homo sapiens sapiens often called "Cro-Magnon")? What is the evolutionary relationship between neandertalensis and modern Homo sapiens sapiens?  

7. Shanidar includes a series of neandertal burials, one of which has significant physical injuries.  What might this suggest about social relations among neandertals?

8. What are the main distinctions of neandertal skeletal anatomy?  What does the skeletal evidence of neandertals of La Chapelle-aux-Saints indicate about the difficulty of neandertal lives?  How old do most neandertals appear to be when they die? 

9. What is the date for the earliest archaic Homo sapiens sapiens?  What site contains this evidence?  About when do these people arrive in southeast Asia?  When do they first arrive in Europe?  Did these animals kill all the neandertals?  Why might they have prospered while neandertals died out?  What is the Aurignancian lithic technology?

10. When was the Upper Paleolithic? Was it before or after the Neolithic? What sorts of transformations occurred during the Upper Paleolithic that help explain the emergence and popularity of mural and portable art?  How did ritual such as burial change during the Upper Paleolithic?  What changes occurred in tool technology and decoration, foodways, and population during the Upper Paleolithic?

11. What are the two basic types of Upper Paleolithic art?  What is the date for the earliest cave painting?  What is the name of the site with these paintings?  What is the most common motif among the paintings on this earliest cave art site?

12. Lascaux is the most famous Paleolithic cave art site.  Where is Lascaux?  When was most of the painting done at Lascaux?  What are the most common motifs?  Do the images at Lascaux appear to be a close approximation of the area's animal life during that period?  Did people permanently live in caves that include cave art?  Were there only specific groups that could gain access to such sites?  

13.  Who was the first hominid to leave Africa?  When did this occur?  When did hominids migrate into Europe?  

14. "Turkana Boy" is a Homo ergaster:  to when does this individual skeleton date?  How does he compare to homo sapiens sapiens?  About when did Homo ergaster emerge?  How do they differ from Homo erectus?  What do some researchers see as the difference between Homo erectus and Homo ergaster?  

15. Homo erectus finds at Ngandong suggest quite different chronologies for the extinction of Homo erectus.  About when do Homo erectus disappear from Ngandong?

 16.  What is the oldest lithic technology?  How old is it?  Where is it found?  What types of tools are part of this technological tradition?

 17. What distinguishes Achuelian tools?  When are they first produced?  

18. The hominid known as Homo floresiensis was found in Indonesia.  What distinguishes this hominid?  What is the date for these hominids, and what do these finds suggest about the Homo genus' variability?  

19. What is Homo antecessor?  

20. What is the date on the hominid known as Homo georgicus?  What is potentially most important about this specimen?  

21. What is the earliest confirmed dating for australopithecus ramidus?  Some remains from the site Aramis are dated earlier and classed as a subspecies:  What are the dates for this animal and what is it called?  How are the ramidus remains from Aramis different from australopithecines?  In what sort of environment did ramidus live?  Where is Aramis?

22. In what sort of environment did Orrorin tugenensis live?  How old are the Orrorin finds from Kenya?

23. Australopithecus anamensis is the oldest australopithecine:  How old is it?  Was it bipedal?  What do its teeth suggest about its diet?

24. What is the proper scientific name for the animal known as "Lucy"?  During what span of time were these animals alive?  Where are these animals found?  What is the difference between gracile and robust australopithecines?  Which is Lucy?

25. What is mosaic evolution?

26. When was the Middle Paleolithic?


FLK North
Koobi Fora
Olduvai Gorge
Terra Amata
Torralba and Ambona
Mount Circeo
Moula Geurcy
Gran Dolina
Broken Hill
Teshik Tash

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Last updated March 22, 2016